The anesthetic activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Hesperozygis ringens (EOHR) and Lippia alba (EOLA) and their effects in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after anesthesia and recovery were investigated. Fish (32.19 ± 1.24 g) were submitted to one of the following treatments for each EO: basal group, control, or anesthesia (150, 300, or 450 μL L(-1) EO). After that the anesthesia was induced or simulated and the biometric measurements were completed, fish were transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria to allow for recovery. Fish were sampled at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 240 min after recovery. At time 0 of recovery, the ventilatory rate was lower in the groups anesthetized with either EO. In comparison with the basal group, control fish showed an increase in plasma glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Na(+) levels and a reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at 0 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ammonia and Na(+) were lower in the fish anesthetized with EOLA (450 μL L(-1)) and EOHR (all concentrations), respectively, than in the control fish. Additionally, lactate, AST, alanine aminotransferase, K(+) plasma levels, and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities were higher in the fish anesthetized with either EOHR or EOLA than in the control fish. The EOs promoted slight changes in silver catfish that enabled both an adaptive response and the recovery of most of the measured parameters after 240 min regardless of concentration or EO that was used. These findings support the use of EOHR and EOLA as anesthetics for fish.
This study analyzed the chemical composition and anesthetic potential of essential oil (EO) of Nectandra megapotamica in fat snook (Centropomus parallelus). For the extraction of EO by hydrodistillation, leaves were separated in young (EO-Y) or old (EO-O), and the chemical composition of the EOs was determined by CG-MS. The anesthetic potential was assessed by the evaluation of induction and recovery time of anesthesia and stress response from anesthesia and transport. Three experiments were carried out: i) four different concentrations of each EO were tested to evaluate anesthesia induction and recovery time; ii) two concentrations of EO-O were tested for the evaluation of its effects on stress parameters (glucose, lactate, and Na + and K + plasma levels) caused by anesthesia; and iii) fish were transported in plastic bags, supplied with two concentrations of EO-O for the evaluation of water quality and mortality. All experiments were performed on fish acclimated to 0 and 33 ppt salinity. The main constituents of the Y and O-EOs were bicyclogermacrene (46.5/34.6%), α-pinene (26.8/26.2%), β-pinene (7.9/12.3%), and germacrene D (9.6/9.1%). Mild sedation was achieved at 30 µL L -1 (1.3-3.2 min) and deep anesthesia at 150 µL L -1 (5.6-8.0 min) with both EOs. The recovery time ranged from 1-10 min. The EO-O was not able to avoid the stress of anesthesia evidenced by elevated glucose and lactate plasma levels observed in all groups. Plasma levels of Na + and K + were not significantly affected by treatments. During transport, the use of EO-O did not prevent deterioration in water quality and the post-transport mortality. In conclusion, the EO of N. megapotamica has anesthetic activity in fat snook, but it was not able to prevent the stress of anesthesia and transport.Este estudo analisou a composição química e o potencial anestésico do óleo essencial (OE) de Nectandra megapotamica em robalos-peva (Centropomus parallelus). Para a extração do OE por hidrodestilação, as folhas foram separadas em jovens (OE-J) ou velhas (OE-V) e a composição química foi determinada por CG-EM. O potencial anestésico foi acessado através da avaliação do tempo de indução e recuperação da anestesia e resposta ao estresse do procedimento anestésico e transporte. Foram realizados três experimentos: em primeiro lugar, quatro concentrações diferentes de cada OE foram testadas para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia e de recuperação; em segundo lugar, duas concentrações do OE-V foram testadas para avaliar os efeitos sobre os parâmetros de estresse (níveis plasmáticos de glicose, lactato, Na + e K + ) causados pelo procedimento anestésico; em terceiro lugar, os peixes foram transportados em sacos plásticos com duas concentrações do OE-V para avaliação da qualidade da água e mortalidade. Todos os experimentos foram realizados em peixes aclimatados à salinidade zero e 33. Os constituintes majoritários do OE-J e OE-V foram: biciclogermacreno (46,5/34,6%), α-pineno (26,8/26,2%), β-pineno (7,9/12,3%) e germacreno D (9,6/9,1%). Sedação leve foi alca...
This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation
RESUMOEm três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse.
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do óleo de cravo como anestésico em adultos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e avaliar, sensorialmente, o aroma e o sabor do filé, após a anestesia. No primeiro experimento, os peixes foram expostos a banhos anestésicos em diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo (0, 100, 150, 200, 250 e 350 mg L -1 ). No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se diferentes tempos (10, 20 e 30 minutos) de exposição à anestesia. Finalmente, o aroma e o sabor dos filés de tilápia foram testados, em diferentes tempos de exposição à concentração adequada de óleo de cravo. A concentração de 250 mg L -1 de óleo de cravo foi adequada para a indução de parada dos batimentos operculares em adultos de tilápia, e para a anestesia voltada para biometria e breve manejo, a concentração recomendada é 100 mg L -1 . Os filés de tilápias previamente anestesiadas com óleo de cravo apresentaram diferença moderada no aroma e no sabor logo após a anestesia. O óleo de cravo é um anestésico eficaz no manejo de adultos de tilápia em procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura, porém o abate de tilápias deve ser realizado a partir de 12 horas após a exposição a este anestésico, para não induzir alteração nas características organolépticas dos filés de peixes anestesiados.Termos para indexação: Oreochromis niloticus, análise sensorial, filés, sedação. Clove oil as an anesthetic on Nile tilapia adultsAbstract -The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of clove oil as an anesthetic for adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to evaluate, sensorially, the aroma and taste of fillets after anesthesia. In the first experiment, fish were exposed to different clove oil concentrations (0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 350 mg L -1 ) of anesthetic baths. In the second experiment, different times of exposure (10, 20 and 30 minutes) to anesthesia were evaluated. Finally, the aroma and taste of the tilapia fillets, when exposed to optimal concentration of clove oil, were tested. The concentration of 250 mg L -1 of clove oil was adequate to induce lower opercular movement in adult tilapia, and for anesthesia for biometrics and brief management, the recommended concentration is 100 mg L -1 . Fillets from tilapia anesthetized with clove oil showed a moderate difference in aroma and taste just after anesthesia. Thus, clove oil is an effective anesthetic for the management of adult tilapia as a routine procedure in fish farming, however tilapias should be slaughtered 12 hours after exposure to the drug, so as not to change the organoleptic characteristics of anesthetized fishes.
-The present study evaluated the sensory, proximate and morphometric differences of pond and net-cagereared Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thirty samples from ponds and 30 samples from net-cages were used.Morphometric measurements were performed in fish and the fillets; proximate composition of the fillets was determined; and sensory analysis of the meat was performed. The fish reared in ponds exhibited similar weights and larger measurements than those reared in net-cages. Fillet measurement and weight were similar for both rearing techniques. The proximate composition analysis of the fillets showed that there was less lipid deposition (12.6 g/kg) and higher moisture retention (792.6 g/kg) in fish reared in the ponds compared with those reared in net-cages (31.7 and 767.8 g/kg, respectively). Although the amount of lipid in the fillets from fish reared in net-cages was higher, the fillets do not contain excessive fat. There was no difference in fillet protein or ash. The flavor of the fillet was moderately good to good and was similar in both farming systems. Fillets produced with the 2 farming systems have similar morphometric, proximate and sensory characteristics.
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