CYP2D6 genotype and concomitant potent CYP2D6 inhibitors are highly associated with endoxifen plasma concentration and may have an impact on the response to tamoxifen therapy. These iterative approaches may be valuable in the study of other complex genotype-phenotype relationships.
Purpose Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are effective for treatment of hormone receptor–positive breast cancer, but adherence and persistence with therapy are poor. Predictors of treatment discontinuation are not clearly defined. It is unknown whether patients with intolerable toxicity from one AI are able to tolerate another. Patients and Methods Women with early-stage breast cancer initiating AI therapy were enrolled onto a multicenter, prospective, open-label randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole. Patients completed symptom questionnaires at baseline and serially during therapy. Patients who developed AI-associated intolerable symptoms and discontinued treatment were given the option to switch to the other study AI after a 2- to 8-week washout period. Results Of the 503 enrolled women, 32.4% discontinued initial AI therapy within 2 years because of adverse effects; 24.3% discontinued specifically because of musculoskeletal symptoms. Median time to treatment discontinuation as a result of any symptom was 6.1 months (range, 0.1 to 21.2 months) and was significantly shorter in patients randomly assigned to exemestane (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = .02). Younger age and taxane-based chemotherapy were associated with higher likelihood of treatment discontinuation (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.9; P = .04; and HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.6; P = .048, respectively). Of the 83 patients who chose to switch to the second AI, 38.6% continued the alternate AI for a median of 13.7 months. Conclusion Premature discontinuation of initial AI therapy as a result of symptoms is common, although more than one third of patients may be able to tolerate a different AI medication. Additional research is needed to identify predictive tools and interventions for AI-associated treatment-emergent symptoms.
The development of targeted therapies for antiestrogenresistant breast cancer requires a detailed understanding of its molecular characteristics. To further elucidate the molecular events underlying acquired resistance to the antiestrogens tamoxifen and fulvestrant, we established drug-resistant sublines from a single colony of hormonedependent breast cancer MCF7 cells. These model systems allowed us to examine the cellular and molecular changes induced by antiestrogens in the context of a uniform clonal background. Global changes in both basal and estrogeninduced gene expression profiles were determined in hormonesensitive and hormonal-resistant sublines using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. Changes in DNA methylation were assessed by differential methylation hybridization, a high-throughput promoter CpG island microarray analysis. By comparative studies, we found distinct gene expression and promoter DNA methylation profiles associated with acquired resistance to fulvestrant versus tamoxifen. Fulvestrant resistance was characterized by pronounced upregulation of multiple growth-stimulatory pathways, resulting in estrogen receptor A (ERA)-independent, autocrineregulated proliferation. Conversely, acquired resistance to tamoxifen correlated with maintenance of the ERA-positive phenotype, although receptor-mediated gene regulation was altered. Activation of growth-promoting genes, due to promoter hypomethylation, was more frequently observed in antiestrogen-resistant cells compared with gene inactivation by promoter hypermethylation, revealing an unexpected insight into the molecular changes associated with endocrine resistance. In summary, this study provides an in-depth understanding of the molecular changes specific to acquired resistance to clinically important antiestrogens. Such knowledge of resistance-associated mechanisms could allow for identification of therapy targets and strategies for resensitization to these well-established antihormonal agents. (Cancer Res 2006; 66(24): 11954-66)
The overexpression or amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is associated with high risk of brain metastasis (BM). The identification of patients at highest immediate risk of BM could optimize screening and facilitate interventional trials. We performed gene expression analysis using complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in primary tumor samples from two independent cohorts of advanced HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Additionally, we analyzed predictive relevance of clinicopathological factors in this series. Study group included discovery Cohort A (84 patients) and validation Cohort B (75 patients). The only independent variables associated with the development of early BM in both cohorts were the visceral location of first distant relapse [Cohort A: hazard ratio (HR) 7.4, 95 % CI 2.4–22.3; p < 0.001; Cohort B: HR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.5–25.6; p = 0.01] and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting (Cohort A: HR 5.0, 95 % CI 1.4–10.0; p = 0.009; Cohort B: HR 10.0, 95 % CI 2.0–100.0; p = 0.008). A profile including 13 genes was associated with early (≤36 months) symptomatic BM in the discovery cohort. This was refined by qRT-PCR to a 3-gene classifier (RAD51, HDGF, TPR) highly predictive of early BM (HR 5.3, 95 % CI 1.6–16.7; p = 0.005; multivariate analysis). However, predictive value of the classifier was not confirmed in the independent validation Cohort B. The presence of visceral metastases and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting apparently increase the likelihood of early BM in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.
We have shown that CYP2B6 genetic polymorphism markedly influences the metabolism of efavirenz in human liver microsomes. Importantly, the CYP2B6*6 allele harboring the SNPs c.516G>T [Q172H] and c.785A>G [K262R] was significantly associated with a pronounced decrease in CYP2B6 expression and activity, as well as a low rate of efavirenz 8-hydroxylation. These results represent a first step towards elucidating the mechanism by which this allele identifies patients exhibiting very high efavirenz plasma concentrations.
To develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a method for estimating lifetime hip and knee cumulative joint force using survey data on physical activity, and to construct and describe lifetime trajectories of energy expenditure and hip and knee joint force.
Exposure data on lifetime physical activity, including type (occupational, household, and recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, and duration), were collected from a Canada‐wide population study of adults ages ≥45 years. Subjects were ranked in 2 ways: in terms of physical activity–related energy expenditure and in terms of a cumulative peak force index (CPFI) for the hip and knee, which is a measure of lifetime exposure and is a time/joint force product involving years of force and subject bodyweight. A relative joint loading index was calculated as the ratio of joint force (CPFI score) to energy expenditure.
A total of 4,269 subjects completed the baseline measurements. Lifetime energy expenditure and hip and knee CPFI scores were higher for occupational and household activity than sport. The mean lifetime energy expenditure from total physical activity in the study sample was 119.1 metabolic equivalent‐hours/week. Women had slightly higher total lifetime energy expenditure and CPFI scores than men. The relative joint loading index was highest for male household and sport activity and lowest for female occupational activity.
Lifetime cumulative hip/knee joint force trajectories were successfully constructed from survey data and followed expected trends. Comparing energy expenditure with joint force revealed variation by age, sex, and activity type, indicating these measures may help distinguish the numerous benefits of physical activity from possible risks.
Background-This study evaluates the relationship between cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 genotype and vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children with precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (preB ALL). We have shown in vitro that vincristine is metabolized significantly more efficiently by CYP3A5 than by CYP3A4. We also found that vincristine neurotoxicity is less common in African-Americans (70% express CYP3A5) than in Caucasians. We test the hypothesis that CYP3A5 expressers experience less vincristine neuropathy than do CYP3A5 non-expressers.
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