DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play an important role in somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA hydroxylase Tet1 facilitates pluripotent stem cell induction by promoting Oct4 demethylation and reactivation. Moreover, Tet1 (T) can replace Oct4 and initiate somatic cell reprogramming in conjunction with Sox2 (S), Klf4 (K), and c-Myc (M). We established an efficient TSKM secondary reprogramming system and used it to characterize the dynamic profiles of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), and gene expression during reprogramming. Our analysis revealed that both 5mC and 5hmC modifications increased at an intermediate stage of the process, correlating with a transition in the transcriptional profile. We also found that 5hmC enrichment is involved in the demethylation and reactivation of genes and regulatory regions that are important for pluripotency. Our data indicate that changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation play important roles in genome-wide epigenetic remodeling during reprogramming.
To identify susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population (GWAS: 746 individuals with schizophrenia and 1,599 healthy controls; validation: 4,027 individuals with schizophrenia and 5,603 healthy controls). We identified two susceptibility loci for schizophrenia at 6p21-p22.1 (rs1233710 in an intron of ZKSCAN4, P(combined) = 4.76 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; rs1635 in an exon of NKAPL, P(combined) = 6.91 × 10(-12), OR = 0.78; rs2142731 in an intron of PGBD1, P(combined) = 5.14 × 10(-10), OR = 0.79) and 11p11.2 (rs11038167 near the 5' UTR of TSPAN18, P(combined) = 1.09 × 10(-11), OR = 1.29; rs11038172, P(combined) = 7.21 × 10(-10), OR = 1.25; rs835784, P(combined) = 2.73 × 10(-11), OR = 1.27). These results add to previous evidence of susceptibility loci for schizophrenia at 6p21-p22.1 in the Han Chinese population. We found that NKAPL and ZKSCAN4 were expressed in postnatal day 0 (P0) mouse brain. These findings may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules (cadherins) are involved in maintaining the epithelial structure of a number oftissues including the mammary gland. In breast and other tumor types. loss of E-cadherin expression has been seen in high grade tumors and correlates with increased invasiveness. Here we show high levels of expression of N-cadherin in the most invasive breast cancer cell lines which was inversely correlated with their expression of E-cadherin. A stromal cell line also expressed N-cadherin in accordance with its fibroblastic morphology. N-cadherin localized to areas of cell-cell contact in all cells that expressed it. Calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion of N-cadherin-expressing breast cancer and stro-ma1 cells was specifically inhibited by an anti N-cadherin monoclonal antibody. In addition, N-cadherin promoted the interaction of invasive breast cancer cells with mammary stromal cells; in contrast, E-cadherin expressing cell lines did not co-aggregate with stromal cells. The combined results suggest a functional role for N-cadherin in cohesion of breast tumor cells which, in addition promotes their interaction with the surrounding stromal cells. thereby facilitating invasion and metastasis.
Cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion, and this activity is regulated by cytoplasmic interactions between cadherins, catenins, and the actinbased cytoskeleton. ␣-Catenin plays a critical role in the transmembrane anchorage of cadherins, and deletion of ␣-catenin has been shown to inactivate cadherin-mediated adhesion, resulting in a nonadhesive phenotype. Here we show that serum starvation increases E-cadherin expression and induces E-cadherin-dependent adhesion in the MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. This adhesion occurred despite a lack of ␣-catenin expression, which was caused by mutations in the ␣-catenin gene. Coprecipitation analysis suggests that this adhesion may be mediated by cytoplasmic connections from cadherins to the cytoskeleton involving vinculin. A high level of vinculin associated with E-cadherin immunoprecipitates was observed in MDA-MB-468 cells. In contrast, vinculin was not detected in E-cadherin complexes in the A431 and MCF-7 epithelial carcinoma cell lines, which express ␣-catenin. However, in reciprocal immunoprecipitations using anti-vinculin antibodies, Ecadherin associated strongly with vinculin in MDA-MB-468 cells and, to a lesser extent, in A431 and MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that both ␣-catenin and vinculin may be present in the adhesion complex. To test the hypothesis that vinculin associates with E-cadherin complexes via ␤-catenin, excess recombinant ␤-catenin or ␣-catenin fusion protein was added to MDA-MB-468 cell lysates. Both specifically inhibited the coprecipitation of E-cadherin with vinculin, suggesting competition for the same binding site. These results suggest that vinculin plays a role in the establishment or regulation of the cadherin-based cell adhesion complex by direct interaction with ␤-catenin.Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate homotypic interactions among cells and are essential for tissue morphogenesis (for review, see Refs. 1 and 2). Adhesion via cadherins involves the coordination of extracellular binding and intracellular anchorage to the actin-based cytoskeleton. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin binds to either ␤-catenin or plakoglobin/␥-catenin (for review, see , and this complex is coupled to the actin cytoskeleton by ␣-catenin, which binds to both ␤-catenin and actin (6, 7). There is evidence that ␣-catenin also binds to ␣-actinin (8, 9) and spectrin (10), but the role of these interactions in adhesion is unknown. Disruption of ␣-catenin function by genetic deletion or mutation was shown to cause a loss of E-cadherin-dependent adhesion. PC-9 lung carcinoma cells, which lack detectable ␣-catenin expression, were shown to have aberrant cell-cell adhesion (11) that was restored by transfection of these cells with ␣-catenin cDNA (12). This resulted in the establishment of a polarized epithelium and inhibition of cell growth (13). This and other work suggest that the linkage of cadherin complexes to the cytoskeleton via ␣-catenin is essential for normal cell adhesion, morphogenesis, and ...
MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), packaging 10 tests selected from more than 90 nominated tests, is a method developed by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) group to evaluate the efficacy of treatments targeting cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. MCCB had been translated into a number of languages, but only the US and Spain had normative data reported. Inconsistency in translation and cultural differences make direct application of MCCB in China problematic. In this study, we administered the battery to a representative community sample based on Chinese population census in 2005 and obtained normative data. The effects of age, gender, education level, and scale of residence area on test performance were examined. The sample included 656 healthy volunteers from six sites in China. At each site, sample was stratified according to age, gender, and educational level, and scale of the area one was born in, grew up in and currently living in was recorded. We found age, gender, and education had significant effects on the normative data for MCCB in China, which are comparable to those found for the original standardized English version in the U.S. and the Spanish version in Spain. Remarkably, the residence scale effects on neuropsychological performance were significant, which should be taking into account when calculating the standardized T score for each subject. The practice effects were minor and test-retest reliability of MCCB was good, which suggests MCCB as an appropriate measure for clinical and research usage in China.
Histone demethylase LSD1 can form complex with different Rcor family corepressors in different cell types. It remains unknown if cell-specific Rcor proteins function specifically in distinct cell types. Here, we report that Rcor2 is predominantly expressed in ESCs and forms a complex with LSD1 and facilitates its nucleosomal demethylation activity. Knockdown of Rcor2 in ESCs inhibited ESC proliferation and severely impaired the pluripotency. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
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