Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are NAB2-STAT6 fusion-associated neoplasms. There are several subtypes of NAB2-STAT6 fusions, but their clinical significances are still unclear. Moreover, the mechanisms of malignant progression are also poorly understood. In this study, using 91 SFT cases, we examined whether fusion variants are associated with clinicopathological parameters and also investigated the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation using whole-exome sequencing. We detected variant 1b (NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2) in 51/91 (56%) cases and variants 2a/2b (NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17) in 17/91 (19%) cases. The NAB2-STAT6 fusion variant types were significantly associated with their primary site (P < 0.001). In addition, a TERT promoter mutation was detected in 7/73 (10%) cases, and it showed a significant association with malignant SFTs (P = 0.003). To identify molecular changes during malignant progression, we selected an index patient to obtain parallel tissue samples from the primary and metastatic tumors. In the metastatic tissue, 10 unique molecular alterations, including those in TP53 and APAF1, were detected. In vitro functional experiments showed that APAF1 depletion increased the tumor potency of cells expressing NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein under treatment with staurosporine. We found that TP53 immunopositivity (P = 0.006) and loss of APAF1 immunoreactivity (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with malignant SFTs. Our study suggests that dysfunction of TP53 and APAF1 leads to impaired apoptotic function, and eventually contributes toward malignant SFT transformation.Key messages We firstly found that the TERT promoter mutation was strongly associated with malignant SFTs (P = 0.003) and the representative 1b (NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2) or 2a (NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16) fusion variants similarly contribute to tumorigenicity.We also found that TP53 immunopositivity (P = 0.006) and loss of APAF1 immunoreactivity (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with malignant SFTs.Our study suggests that dysfunction of TP53 and APAF1 leads to impaired apoptotic function, and eventually contributes toward malignant SFT transformation. Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00109-019-01815-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The purpose of this study was to develop a biobetter version of recombinant human interferon-β 1a (rhIFN-β 1a) to improve its biophysical properties, such as aggregation, production and stability, and pharmacokinetic properties without jeopardizing its activity. To achieve this, we introduced additional glycosylation into rhIFN-β 1a via site-directed mutagenesis. Glycoengineering of rhIFN-β 1a resulted in a new molecular entity, termed R27T, which was defined as a rhIFN-β mutein with two N-glycosylation sites at 80th (original site) and at an additional 25th amino acid due to a mutation of Thr for Arg at position 27th of rhIFN-β 1a. Glycoengineering had no effect on rhIFN-β ligand-receptor binding, as no loss of specific activity was observed. R27T showed improved stability and had a reduced propensity for aggregation and an increased half-life. Therefore, hyperglycosylated rhIFN-β could be a biobetter version of rhIFN-β 1a with a potential for use as a drug against multiple sclerosis.
Background: Early TIMP-1 accumulation may impede cancer progression, and cancer cells need to reduce the antiproteolytic burden. Results: Early overexpression and later aberrant glycosylation of TIMP-1 support tumor progression. Conclusion: Concomitant overexpression of TIMP-1 and GnT-V directs accelerated tumor growth and cancer progression in vivo and in vitro. Significance: An answer to the debate on whether TIMP-1 is pro-or anti-oncogenic is given.
We previously showed that UBE2C mRNA expression is significantly associated with poor prognosis only in patients with hormone receptor (HR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-breast cancer. In this study, we further reanalyzed the correlation between UBE2C mRNA expression and clinical outcomes in patients with HR+/HER2-breast cancer, and we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of UBE2C modulation in disease progression in this subgroup of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that high UBE2C expression was associated with significantly shorter survival of breast cancer patients with pN0 and pN1 tumors but not pN2/N3 tumors (P < 0.05). In vitro functional experiments in HR+/HER2-breast cancer cells showed that UBE2C expression is a tumorigenic factor, and that estrogen upregulated UBE2C mRNA and protein by directly binding to the UBE2C promoter region. UBE2C knockdown inhibited cell proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression, and UBE2C overexpression was associated with estrogen-independent growth. UBE2C depletion markedly increased the cytotoxicity of tamoxifen by inducing apoptosis. The present findings suggest that UBE2C overexpression is correlated with relapse and promotes estrogen-dependent/independent proliferation in early HR+/HER2-breast cancer.
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common cancers worldwide, has a high mortality rate due to limited treatment options. Identifying novel and promising molecular targets is a major challenge that must be overcome if treatment of advanced GC is to be successful. Here, we used comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarrays to examine genome-wide DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and global gene expression in 38 GC samples from old and young patients. We identified frequent CNAs, which included copy number gains on chromosomes 3q, 7p, 8q, 20p, and 20q and copy number losses on chromosomes 19p and 21p. The most frequently gained region was 7p21.1 (55%), whereas the most frequently deleted region was 21p11.1 (50%). Recurrent highly amplified regions 17q12 and 7q31.1-7q31.31 harbored two well-known oncogenes: ERBB2 and MET. Correlation analysis of CNAs and gene expression levels identified CAPZA2 (co-amplified with MET) and genes GRB7, MIEN1, PGAP3, and STARD3 (co-amplified with ERBB2) as potential candidate cancer-promoting genes (CPGs). Public dataset analysis confirmed co-amplification of these genes with MET or ERBB2 in GC tissue samples, and revealed that high expression (except for PGAP3) was significantly associated with shorter overall survival. Knockdown of these genes using small interfering RNA led to significant suppression of GC cell proliferation and migration. Reduced GC cell proliferation mediated by CAPZA2 knockdown was attributable to attenuated cell cycle progression and increased apoptosis. This study identified novel candidate CPGs co-amplified with MET or ERBB2, and suggests that they play a functional role in GC.
Amplification and overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 are well-known diagnostic criteria for well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS)/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS). Although it was reported that the depletion of MDM2 or CDK4 decreased proliferation in DDLPS cell lines, whether MDM2 and CDK4 induce WDLPS/DDLPS tumorigenesis remains unclear. We examined whether MDM2 and/or CDK4 cause WDLPS/DDLPS, using two types of transformed human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), 2H and 5H, with five oncogenic hits (overexpression of hTERT, TP53 degradation, RB inactivation, c-MYC stabilization, and overexpression of HRASv12). In vitro functional experiments revealed that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 plays a key role in tumorigenesis by increasing cell growth and migration and inhibiting adipogenic differentiation potency when compared with the sole expression of MDM2 or CDK4. Using mouse xenograft models, we found that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 in 5H cells with five additional oncogenic mutations can cause proliferative sarcoma with a DDLPS-like morphology in vivo. Our results suggest that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4, along with multiple genetic factors, increases the tendency for high-grade sarcoma with a DDLPS-like morphology in transformed human BMSCs by accelerating their growth and migration and blocking their adipogenic potential.
Introduction: The GenesWell Breast Cancer Test (BCT) is a recently developed multigene assay that predicts the risk of distant recurrence in patients with early breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the concordance of the BCT score with the Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS) for risk stratification in Asian patients with pN0-N1, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues previously analyzed using the Oncotype DX test were assessed using the GenesWell BCT test. The risk stratification by the two tests was then compared. Results: A total of 771 patients from five institutions in Korea were analyzed. According to the BCT score, 527 (68.4%) patients were classified as low risk, and 244 (31.6%) as high risk. Meanwhile, 134 (17.4%), 516 (66.9%), and 121 (15.7%) patients were categorized into the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively, according to the RS ranges used in the TAILORx. The BCT high-risk group was significantly associated with advanced lymph node status, whereas no association between RS risk groups and nodal status was observed. The concordance between the two risk stratification methods in the overall population was 71.9% when the RS low-risk, and intermediate-risk groups were combined into one group. However, poor concordance was observed in patients aged ≤50 years and in those with lymph node-positive breast cancer. Conclusions: The concordance between the BCT score and RS was low in women aged ≤50 years or with lymph node-positive breast cancer. Further studies are necessary to identify more accurate tests for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy benefit in this subpopulation.
The glycoengineering approach is used to improve biophysical properties of protein-based drugs, but its direct impact on binding affinity and kinetic properties for the glycoengineered protein and its binding partner interaction is unclear. Type I interferon (IFN) receptors, composed of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, have different binding strengths, and sequentially bind to IFN in the dominant direction, leading to activation of signals and induces a variety of biological effects. Here, we evaluated receptor-binding kinetics for each state of binary and ternary complex formation between recombinant human IFN-β-1a and the glycoengineered IFN-β mutein (R27T) using the heterodimeric Fc-fusion technology, and compared biological responses between them. Our results have provided evidence that the additional glycan of R27T, located at the binding interface of IFNAR2, destabilizes the interaction with IFNAR2 via steric hindrance, and simultaneously enhances the interaction with IFNAR1 by restricting the conformational freedom of R27T. Consequentially, altered receptor-binding kinetics of R27T in the ternary complex formation led to a substantial increase in strength and duration of biological responses such as prolonged signal activation and gene expression, contributing to enhanced anti-proliferative activity. In conclusion, our findings reveal N-glycan at residue 25 of R27T is a crucial regulator of receptor-binding kinetics that changes biological activities such as long-lasting activation. Thus, we believe that R27T may be clinically beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis.
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