ObjectiveTo examine the effects of a bedside exercise program on the recovery of swallowing after a stroke.MethodFifty stroke patients with dysphagia (<6 months post-stroke) were enrolled and classified into two groups, the experimental (25 subjects) and control groups (25 subjects). The control group was treated with conventional swallowing therapy. The experimental group received additional bedside exercise training, which consisted of oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and respiratory exercises, 1 hour per day for 2 months, and they were instructed regarding this program through the nursing intervention. All patients were assessed for their swallowing function by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS), using the New VFSS scale, the level of functional oral intake, the frequency of dysphagia complications, the presence (or not) of tube feeding, the mood state and quality of life before the treatment and at 2 months after the treatment.ResultsAfter 2 months of treatment, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the swallowing function at the oral phase in the New VFSS Scale than that of the control group (p<0.05). Further, they also showed less depressive mood and better quality of life than the control group. However, there was no significant change in the incidence of dysphagia complication and the presence (or not) of tube feeding between the two groups.ConclusionBedside exercise program showed an improvement of swallowing function and exhibited a positive secondary effect, such as mood state and quality of life, on subacute stroke patients with dysphagia. For improvement of rehabilitation results on subacute stroke patients with dysphagia, this study suggests that additional intensive bedside exercise would be necessary.
ObjectiveTo evaluate and compare the effects and outcomes of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).MethodsOf the 78 patients recruited for the study, 61 patients met the inclusion criteria. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups: the ESWT group and the HA group. The ESWT group underwent 3 sessions of 1,000 shockwave pulses performed on the affected knee with the dosage adjusted to 0.05 mJ/mm2 energy. The HA group was administered intra-articular HA once a week for 3 weeks with a 1-week interval between each treatment. The results were measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lequesne index, 40-m fast-paced walk test, and stair-climb test (SCT). A baseline for each test was measured before treatment and then the effects of the treatments were measured by each test at 1 and 3 months after treatment.ResultsIn both groups, the scores of the VAS, WOMAC, Lequesne index, 40-m fast-paced walk test, and SCT were significantly improved in a time-dependent manner (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences measured at 1 and 3 months after treatment between the two groups (p>0.05).ConclusionThe ESWT can be an alternative treatment to reduce pain and improve physical functions in patients with knee OA.
ObjectiveTo examine the dose-related effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for plantar fasciitis.MethodsSixty patients with plantar fasciitis despite conservative treatment were enrolled. The patients were divided into a low-energy group (group L: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, energy flux density [EFD] per shock 0.08 mJ/mm2) and a medium-energy group (group M: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, EFD 0.16 mJ/mm2). The main outcome measures were visual analogue scale (VAS), Roles and Maudsley (RM) score, and thickness of plantar fascia (PF). To compare the effects between each group, follow-up was carried out 1 week after 3 and 6 sessions, and 1 and 3 months after ESWT.ResultsSignificant VAS and RM score improvement, and PF thickness reduction were observed in both groups (p<0.01). After 3 sessions of ESWT, group M showed significant improvement in the VAS and RM score than group L, whereas after 3 additional sessions applied in group L, the main outcomes were no longer significantly different in both groups (p>0.05).ConclusionTherapeutic effect might disclose a dose-related relationship; therefore, EFD and the times of the session are considerable factors when treating with ESWT.
The effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sensory perception and the pain tolerance thresholds were investigated applying both motor cortex stimulation and medial frontal cortex stimulation in normal study participants. Both the sensory perception and pain tolerance thresholds were significantly increased in the motor cortex stimulation, whereas the pain tolerance thresholds, but not the sensory perception was significantly decreased in the medial frontal cortex stimulation. These results suggest the dissociable modulating effects of sensory and pain perception by the high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the medial pain regulating system, but not the lateral pain regulating system.
ObjectiveTo delineate whether cortical plasticity induced by continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) differed according to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphism in healthy older adults.MethodsEighteen healthy older volunteers (mean age 73.78±5.04; 12 females and 6 males) were recruited. Volunteers randomly assigned in either a sham-first or real cTBS first group participated in two separate TMS visits with at least a 2-day wash-out period. Genotyping was carried out at baseline by a separate researcher who was blinded. cTBS was delivered in a hot spot over M1 at an active motor threshold of 80%. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained at 120% of the resting motor threshold before and after sham/cTBS.ResultsThe relative MEP to baseline was significantly decreased 0 and 10 minutes post-stimulation and increased 40 minutes post-stimulation, as compared with the sham condition. Immediately after cTBS, the Val/Val group had a significantly reduced relative MEP value, as compared with the MET carrier group.ConclusionIn healthy older persons, cTBS-induced motor plasticity was reduced in the COMT Val/Val group as compared with the 158Met carrier group.
ObjectiveTo explore plastic changes in the red nucleus (RN) of stroke patients with severe corticospinal tract (CST) injury as a compensatory mechanism for recovery of hand function.MethodsThe moderate group (MG) comprised 5 patients with synergistic hand grasp movement combined with limited extension, and the severe group (SG) included 5 patients with synergistic hand grasp movement alone. The control group (CG) included 5 healthy subjects. Motor assessment was measured by Motricity Index (MI). Diffusion tensor imaging was analyzed using fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the individual regions of interest (ROIs)—bilateral internal capsule and anterior pons for CST injury and bilateral RN for rubrospinal tract (RST) injury.ResultsThe SG showed a significantly lower MI score than the MG mainly due to differences in hand subscores. Significantly reduced FA was observed in both MG and SG compared with CG, while SG showed increased MD and RD in the affected ROIs of CST, and increased FA on the unaffected side compared with CG. However, in the RN ROI, a significantly increased FA and decreased RD on the unaffected side similar to the affected side were found only in the SG. The relative index of FA was lower and RD in SG was higher than in CG in RST. ConclusionThe diffusion metrics of RST showed changes in patients with severe CST injury, suggesting that RST may play a role in the recovery of hand function in patients with severe CST injury.
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