SummaryPostinflammatory hypopigmentation is a common cause of acquired hypopigmentary disorders. It can be a result of cutaneous inflammation, injury or dermatological treatment. There are also many specific conditions that present with hypopigmentation other than postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Most cases of postinflammatory hypopigmentation improve spontaneously within weeks or months if the primary cause is ceased; however, it can be permanent if there is complete destruction of melanocytes. This article reviews the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, differential diagnosis and therapeutic options for postinflammatory hypopigmentation.
The serum SCC-Ag was consistently associated with recurrence and mortality of newly diagnosed cervical cancer. This marker may be useful in monitoring disease progression in cervical cancer patients. Prospero registration number is: CRD42016044024.
Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition.
We assessed the effectiveness of an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in a medical school. Our ASP included delivering an antibiotic use guideline via e-mail and LINE (an instant messaging app) to faculty staff, fellows, and residents, and posting of the guideline in examination rooms. Medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with ARTI were reviewed to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription. ASP could increase the rate of appropriateness from 78% (1979 out of 2553 visits) to 83.4% (2449 out of 2935 visits; P < .001). The baseline of appropriateness was higher in residents (95%) compared with fellows (82%) and faculty staff (75%). The ASP significantly increased the appropriateness only in faculty staff, especially in semiprivate clinics (75% to 83%, P < .001). In conclusion, our ASP increased appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions for ARTI, with the greatest impact among faculty staff in semiprivate clinics.
Background Hair and scalp involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can manifest as scarring alopecia, non-scarring alopecia or scalp/hair shaft changes without apparent hair loss. While trichoscopic signs in chronic cutaneous lupus are well established, data on SLE patients with normal-looking or non-scarring scalp are limited.Objectives To investigate trichoscopic features of SLE patients without chronic cutaneous scalp lesions and compare the findings with normal controls, as well as determine which feature associates with systemic disease. Furthermore, we aim to explore different clinical presentations of the scalp in SLE patients and their association with disease activity.Methods Trichoscopic photographs were taken from patients and healthy controls and evaluated by one blinded hair specialist. For SLE patients, their clinical presentations and evaluations for cutaneous, extracutaneous involvement; SLE Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score were documented. ResultsOf 109 SLE patients and 305 healthy controls were included. Hair shaft changes were significantly more common in SLE and associated with higher SLEDAI-2K (P < 0.05). The most common feature was prominent arborizing blood vessels (60.6% vs. 18.4%, P < 0.001), followed by thick arborizing blood vessels (57.8% vs. 10.2%, P < 0.001), black dots (47.7% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), brown scattered pigmentation (5.5% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.005) and blue-grey speckled pigmentation (44% vs.0.3%, P < 0.001). When hair loss is diffuse and severe, there were associations with haematologic (P = 0.002) and renal involvement (P = 0.027 for proteinuria > 500 mg/day, P = 0.004 for proteinuria > 1 g/day).Conclusions Trichoscopic examination is a valuable tool for SLE diagnosis and monitoring. Severe diffuse non-scarring alopecia most likely indicates active disease.
Objectives: To pool prevalence of nonconvulsive seizure, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and epileptiform activity detected by different electroencephalography types in critically ills and to compare detection rates among them. Data Sources: MEDLINE (via PubMed) and SCOPUS (via Scopus) Study Selection: Any type of study was eligible if studies were done in adult critically ill, applied any type of electroencephalography, and reported seizure rates. Case reports and case series were excluded. Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Separated pooling of prevalence of nonconvulsive seizure/nonconvulsive status epilepticus/epileptiform activity and odds ratio of detecting outcomes among different types of electroencephalography was performed using random-effect models. This meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and also adhered to the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Quality of evidence was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and Cochrane methods for randomized controlled trial studies. Data Synthesis: A total of 78 (16,707 patients) and eight studies (4,894 patients) were eligible for pooling prevalence and odds ratios. For patients with mixed cause of admission, the pooled prevalence of nonconvulsive seizure, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, either nonconvulsive seizure or nonconvulsive status epilepticus detected by routine electroencephalography was 3.1%, 6.2%, and 6.3%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence detected by continuous electroencephalography monitoring was 17.9%, 9.1%, and 15.6%, respectively. In addition, the corresponding prevalence was high in post convulsive status epilepticus (33.5%, 20.2%, and 32.9%), CNS infection (23.9%, 18.1%, and 23.9%), and post cardiac arrest (20.0%, 17.3%, and 22.6%). The pooled conditional log odds ratios of nonconvulsive seizure/nonconvulsive status epilepticus detected by continuous electroencephalography versus routine electroencephalography from studies with paired data 2.57 (95% CI, 1.11–5.96) and pooled odds ratios from studies with independent data was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.00–2.47). Conclusions: Prevalence of seizures detected by continuous electroencephalography was significantly higher than with routine electroencephalography. Prevalence was particularly high in post convulsive status epilepticus, CNS infection, and post cardiac arrest.
Melasma is an acquired hypermelanosis that results in localized hyperpigmentation, commonly found on the face. This condition is much more common in women than men. There are some features of melasma in men that seem to differ from those seen in women. However, there is a paucity of data on this topic. The aim of this article is to review the etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of melasma in men. It is important for dermatologists to understand some unique aspects of melasma in this group to provide appropriate care for patients who suffer from this frustrating condition.
Background: Many drugs have been used to treat scabies, but it is unclear which of them is the most efficacious. Objective: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of antiscabietic agents. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Direct and network meta-analyses were applied to 13 antiscabietic agents on 3 outcomes (cure, persistent itching, and adverse events). Their probability of having highest efficacy and safety was estimated and ranked. Results: A network meta-analysis of 52 trials including 9917 patients indicated that permethrin (the reference treatment) had a significantly higher cure rate than sulfur, malathion, lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate. Combination permethrin plus oral ivermectin had a nonsignificantly higher cure rate than permethrin. Combination permethrin plus oral ivermectin was ranked highest in terms of cure, topical ivermectin in terms of persistent itching, and synergized pyrethrins in terms of adverse events. On the basis of clustered ranking, permethrin, oral ivermectin, and synergized pyrethrins seemed to retain balance between cure and adverse events. Limitations: There are small numbers of trials and patients in some comparisons and a high risk of bias in some trials. Conclusion: There is no 1 treatment that ranked highest in all aspects. Physicians should consider the drug's efficacy and safety profiles, along with ease of administration.
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