The transient receptor potential channel of melastatin 4 (TRPM4) belongs to a group of large ion receptors that are involved in countless cell signalling cascades. This unique member is ubiquitously expressed in many human tissues, especially in cardiomyocytes, where it plays an important role in cardiovascular processes. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) are usually constituted by intracellular N- and C- termini, which serve as mediators affecting allosteric modulation of channels, resulting in the regulation of the channel function. The TRPs tails contain a number of conserved epitopes that specifically bind the intracellular modulators. Here, we identify new binding sites for the calmodulin (CaM) and S100 calcium-binding protein A1 (S100A1), located in the very distal part of the TRPM4 N terminus. We have used chemically synthesized peptides of the TRPM4, mimicking the binding epitopes, along with fluorescence methods to determine and specify CaM- and S100A1-binding sites. We have found that the ligands binding epitopes at the TRPM4 N terminus overlap, but the interacting mechanism of both complexes is probably different. The molecular models supported by data from the fluorescence method confirmed that the complexes formations are mediated by the positively charged (R139, R140, R144) and hydrophobic (L134, L138, V143) residues present at the TRPM4 N terminus-binding epitopes. The data suggest that the molecular complexes of TRPM4/CaM and TRPM4/S100A1 would lead to the modulation of the channel functions.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel (TRPV1) belongs to the TRP family of ion channels. These channels play a role in many important biological processes such as thermosensation and pain transduction. The TRPV1 channel was reported to be also involved in nociception. Ca(2+) ions are described to participate in the regulation of TRP channels through the interaction with Ca(2+)-binding proteins, such as calmodulin or S100A1. Calmodulin is involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of TRPV1 via its binding to the TRPV1 C-terminal region. However, the role of the Ca(2+)-binding protein S100A1 in the process of TRP channel regulation remains elusive. Here we characterized a region on the TRPV1 C-terminus responsible for the interaction with S100A1 using biochemical and biophysical tools. We found that this region overlaps with previously identified calmodulin and PIP2 binding sites and that S100A1 competes with calmodulin and PIP2 for this binding site. We identified several positively charged residues within this region, which have crucial impact on S100A1 binding, and we show that the reported S100A1-TRPV1 interaction is calcium-dependent. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism for the mutual regulation of PIP2 and the Ca(2+)-binding proteins S100A1 and calmodulin to TRPV1.
The transient receptor potential (TRP) protein superfamily consists of seven major groups, among them the “canonical TRP” family. The TRPC proteins are calcium-permeable nonselective cation channels activated after the emptying of intracellular calcium stores and appear to be gated by various types of messengers. The TRPC6 channel has been shown to be expressed in various tissues and cells, where it modulates the calcium level in response to external signals. Calcium binding proteins such as Calmodulin or the family of S100A proteins are regulators of TRPC channels. Here we characterized the overlapping integrative binding site for S100A1 at the C-tail of TRPC6, which is also able to accomodate various ligands such as Calmodulin and phosphatidyl-inositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Several positively charged amino acid residues (Arg852, Lys856, Lys859, Arg860 and Arg864) were determined by fluorescence anisotropy measurements for their participation in the calcium-dependent binding of S100A1 to the C terminus of TRPC6. The triple mutation Arg852/Lys859/Arg860 exhibited significant disruption of the binding of S100A1 to TRPC6. This indicates a unique involvement of these three basic residues in the integrative overlapping binding site for S100A1 on the C tail of TRPC6.
Molecular determinants of the binding of various endogenous modulators to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are crucial for the understanding of necessary cellular pathways, as well as new paths for rational drug designs. The aim of this study was to characterise interactions between the TRP cation channel subfamily melastatin member 4 (TRPM4) and endogenous intracellular modulators—calcium-binding proteins (calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1) and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2). We have found binding epitopes at the N- and C-termini of TRPM4 shared by CaM, S100A1 and PIP2. The binding affinities of short peptides representing the binding epitopes of N- and C-termini were measured by means of fluorescence anisotropy (FA). The importance of representative basic amino acids and their combinations from both peptides for the binding of endogenous TRPM4 modulators was proved using point alanine-scanning mutagenesis. In silico protein–protein docking of both peptides to CaM and S100A1 and extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enabled the description of key stabilising interactions at the atomic level. Recently solved cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) structures made it possible to put our findings into the context of the entire TRPM4 channel and to deduce how the binding of these endogenous modulators could allosterically affect the gating of TRPM4. Moreover, both identified binding epitopes seem to be ideally positioned to mediate the involvement of TRPM4 in higher-order hetero-multimeric complexes with important physiological functions.
Transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels are crucial downstream targets of calcium signalling cascades. They can be modulated either by calcium itself and/or by calcium-binding proteins (CBPs). Intracellular messengers usually interact with binding domains present at the most variable TRP regions—N- and C-cytoplasmic termini. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-dependent cytosolic protein serving as a modulator of most transmembrane receptors. Although CaM-binding domains are widespread within intracellular parts of TRPs, no such binding domain has been characterised at the TRP melastatin member—the transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6) channel. Another CBP, the S100 calcium-binding protein A1 (S100A1), is also known for its modulatory activities towards receptors. S100A1 commonly shares a CaM-binding domain. Here, we present the first identified CaM and S100A1 binding sites at the N-terminal of TRPM6. We have confirmed the L520-R535 N-terminal TRPM6 domain as a shared binding site for CaM and S100A1 using biophysical and molecular modelling methods. A specific domain of basic amino acid residues (R526/R531/K532/R535) present at this TRPM6 domain has been identified as crucial to maintain non-covalent interactions with the ligands. Our data unambiguously confirm that CaM and S100A1 share the same binding domain at the TRPM6 N-terminus although the ligand-binding mechanism is different.
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) represents melastatin TRP channel with two significant functions, cation permeability and kinase activity. TRPM7 is widely expressed among tissues and is therefore involved in a variety of cellular functions representing mainly Mg 2þ homeostasis, cellular Ca 2þ flickering, and the regulation of DNA transcription by a cleaved kinase domain translocated to the nucleus. TRPM7 participates in several important biological processes in the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Together with the necessary function of the TRPM7 in these tissues and its recently analyzed overall structure, this channel requires further studies leading to the development of potential therapeutic targets. Here we present the first study investigating the N-termini of TRPM7 with binding regions for important intracellular modulators calmodulin (CaM) and calcium-binding protein S1 (S100A1) using in vitro and in silico approaches. Molecular simulations of the discovered complexes reveal their potential binding interfaces with common interaction patterns and the important role of basic residues present in the N-terminal binding region of TRPM.
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