The human CDK8 subcomplex (CDK8, cyclin C, Med12, and Med13) negatively regulates transcription in ways not completely defined; past studies suggested CDK8 kinase activity was required for its repressive function. Using a reconstituted transcription system together with recombinant or endogenous CDK8 subcomplexes, we demonstrate that, in fact, Med12 and Med13 are critical for subcomplex-dependent repression, whereas CDK8 kinase activity is not. A hallmark of activated transcription is efficient reinitiation from promoter-bound scaffold complexes that recruit a series of pol II enzymes to the gene. Notably, the CDK8 submodule strongly represses even reinitiation events, suggesting a means to fine tune transcript levels. Structural and biochemical studies confirm the CDK8 submodule binds the Mediator leg/tail domain via the Med13 subunit, and this submoduleMediator association precludes pol II recruitment. Collectively, these results reveal the CDK8 subcomplex functions as a simple switch that controls the Mediator-pol II interaction to help regulate transcription initiation and reinitiation events. As Mediator is generally required for expression of protein-coding genes, this may reflect a common mechanism by which activated transcription is shut down in human cells.[Keywords: CDK8 subcomplex; Med12; Med13; Mediator; transcription] Supplemental material is available at http://www.genesdev.org.
The human Mediator complex is generally required for expression of protein-coding genes. Here, we show that the GCN5L acetyltransferase stably associates with Mediator together with the TRRAP polypeptide. Yet, contrary to expectations, TRRAP/GCN5L does not associate with the transcriptionally active core Mediator but rather with Mediator that contains the cdk8 subcomplex. Consequently, this derivative 'T/G-Mediator' complex does not directly activate transcription in a reconstituted human transcription system. However, within T/GMediator, cdk8 phosphorylates serine-10 on histone H3, which in turn stimulates H3K14 acetylation by GCN5L within the complex. Tandem phosphoacetylation of H3 correlates with transcriptional activation, and ChIP assays demonstrate co-occupancy of T/G-Mediator components at several activated genes in vivo. Moreover, cdk8 knockdown causes substantial reduction of global H3 phosphoacetylation, suggesting that T/G-Mediator is a major regulator of this H3 mark. Cooperative H3 modification provides a mechanistic basis for GCN5L association with cdk8-Mediator and also identifies a biochemical means by which cdk8 can indirectly activate gene expression. Indeed our results suggest that T/G-Mediator directs early events-such as modification of chromatin templates-in transcriptional activation.
A mass spectrometry analysis was performed using serum from patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors to define baseline protein signatures associated with outcome in metastatic melanoma. Pretreatment serum was obtained from a development set of 119 melanoma patients on a trial of nivolumab with or without a multipeptide vaccine and from patients receiving pembrolizumab, nivolumab, ipilimumab, or both nivolumab and ipilimumab. Spectra were obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. These data combined with clinical data identified patients with better or worse outcomes. The test was applied to five independent patient cohorts treated with checkpoint inhibitors and its biology investigated using enrichment analyses. A signature consisting of 209 proteins or peptides was associated with progression-free and overall survival in a multivariate analysis. The test performance across validation cohorts was consistent with the development set results. A pooled analysis, stratified by set, demonstrated a significantly better overall survival for "sensitive" relative to "resistant" patients, HR = 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.40, < 0.001). The test was also associated with survival in a cohort of ipilimumab-treated patients. Test classification was found to be associated with acute phase reactant, complement, and wound healing pathways. We conclude that a pretreatment signature of proteins, defined by mass spectrometry analysis and machine learning, predicted survival in patients receiving PD-1 blocking antibodies. This signature of proteins was associated with acute phase reactants and elements of wound healing and the complement cascade. This signature merits further study to determine if it identifies patients who would benefit from PD-1 blockade. .
The therapeutic landscape in metastatic melanoma has changed dramatically in the last decade, with the success of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulting in durable responses for a large number of patients. For patients with BRAF mutations, combinations of BRAF and MEK inhibitors demonstrated response rates and benefit comparable to those from immune checkpoint inhibitors, providing the rationale for sequential treatment with targeted and immunotherapies and raising the question of optimal treatment sequencing. Biomarkers for the selection of anti-PD-1 therapy in BRAF wild type ( BRAF WT) and in BRAF mutated ( BRAF MUT) patients help development of alternative treatments for patients unlikely to benefit, and might lead to better understanding of the interaction of checkpoint inhibition and targeted therapy. In this paper we evaluate the performance of a previously developed serum proteomic test, BDX008, in metastatic melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents and investigate the role of BRAF mutation status. BDX008, a pre-treatment proteomic test associated with acute phase reactants, wound healing and complement activation, stratifies patients into two groups, BDX008+ and BDX008-, with better and worse outcomes on immunotherapy. Serum samples were available from 71 patients treated with anti-PD1 inhibitors; 25 patients had BRAF mutations, 39 were wild type. Overall, BDX008+ patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.50, P = 0.016) and a trend for better progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 0.61, P = 0.060) than BDX008- patients. BDX008 classification was statistically significant in the analyses adjusted for mutation status, LDH, and line of treatment ( P = 0.009 for OS and 0.031 for PFS). BRAF WT BDX008+ patients had markedly long median OS of 32.5 months and 53% landmark 2 years survival, with statistically significantly superior OS as compared to BDX008- patients (HR = 0.41, P = 0.032). The difference between BDX008+ and BDX008- in PFS in BRAF WT patients and in OS and PFS in BRAF MUT patients did not reach statistical significance, though numerically was consistent with overall results. The test demonstrated significant interaction with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (PFS P = 0.041, OS P = 0.004). BDX008 as a biomarker selecting for benefit from immune checkpoint blockade, especially in patients with wild type BRAF and in subgroups with low NLR , warrants further evaluation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s40425-019-0569-1) contains supplementary material, which is availa...
IntroductionReliable measurements of the protein content of biological fluids like serum or plasma can provide valuable input for the development of personalized medicine tests. Standard MALDI analysis typically only shows high abundance proteins, which limits its utility for test development. It also exhibits reproducibility issues with respect to quantitative measurements. In this paper we show how the sensitivity of MALDI profiling of intact proteins in unfractionated human serum can be substantially increased by exposing a sample to many more laser shots than are commonly used. Analytical reproducibility is also improved.MethodsTo assess what is theoretically achievable we utilized spectra from the same samples obtained over many years and combined them to generate MALDI spectral averages of up to 100,000,000 shots for a single sample, and up to 8,000,000 shots for a set of 40 different serum samples. Spectral attributes, such as number of peaks and spectral noise of such averaged spectra were investigated together with analytical reproducibility as a function of the number of shots. We confirmed that results were similar on MALDI instruments from different manufacturers.ResultsWe observed an expected decrease of noise, roughly proportional to the square root of the number of shots, over the whole investigated range of the number of shots (5 orders of magnitude), resulting in an increase in the number of reliably detected peaks. The reproducibility of the amplitude of these peaks, measured by CV and concordance analysis also improves with very similar dependence on shot number, reaching median CVs below 2% for shot numbers > 4 million. Measures of analytical information content and association with biological processes increase with increasing number of shots.ConclusionsWe demonstrate that substantially increasing the number of laser shots in a MALDI-TOF analysis leads to more informative and reliable data on the protein content of unfractionated serum. This approach has already been used in the development of clinical tests in oncology.
Background:VeriStrat is a blood-based proteomic test with predictive and prognostic significance in second-line treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This trial was designed to investigate the role of VeriStrat in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC with standard chemotherapy. Here we present the results for 76 non-squamous patients treated with a combination of carboplatin or cisplatin with pemetrexed.Methods:The test-assigned classifications of VeriStrat Good or VeriStrat Poor to samples collected at baseline. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and objective response. Exploratory analyses of end points separately in carboplatin/pemetrexed and cisplatin/pemetrexed subgroups were also conducted.Results:Patients classified as VeriStrat Good had longer PFS and OS than VeriStrat Poor: 6.5 vs 1.6 months and 10.8 vs 3.4 months, respectively; the corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.36 (P<0.0001) and 0.26 (P<0.0001); they were also more likely to achieve objective response. Prognostic significance of VeriStrat was confirmed in multivariate analysis. Significant differences in OS and PFS between Veristrat classifications were also found when treatment subgroups were analysed separately.Conclusions:The trial demonstrated clinical utility of VeriStrat as a prognostic test for standard first-line chemotherapy of non-squamous advanced NSCLC.
VeriStrat provides valuable clinical information that may be used to support patient-physician conversations regarding prognosis and treatment options, and to identify a subset of patients who might benefit from other treatment strategies, possibly in the framework of clinical trials.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers