These results demonstrate that both rhBMP2 and rhBMP9 have osteopromotive properties on osteoblast differentiation. It was found that rhBMP9 additionally stimulated the osteopromotive potential of osteoblasts when compared to rhBMP2 by demonstrating higher levels of ALP expression and alizarin red staining. Further animal studies comparing both recombinant proteins are necessary to further characterize the osteoinductive potential of BMP9.
Results indicate that the combination of collagen membranes with rhBMP9 induced significantly higher ALP mRNA expression and alizarin red staining compared with rhBMP2. These findings suggest that rhBMP9 may be a suitable growth factor for future regenerative procedures in bone biology.
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of three types of block bone substitute material on bone formation and graft resorption in vivo. Standardized bone defects (n = 4 defects/animal) were created in the calvaria of nine dogs. Block bone substitutes made of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and a mixture alpha-TCP and hydroxyapatite (α-TCP/HA) were inserted into the bone defects. A fourth defect was left untreated (empty). All sites were covered with a collagenous membrane. Block biopsies were harvested at 3, 6 and 12 months post-implantation and analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Biomaterial absorption was minimal and incorporation within the defect margin was good for all biomaterials. However, β-TCP demonstrated a relatively greater volume of new bone formation and less residual material volume when compared with DBBM and α-TCP/HA. Conversely, α-TCP/HA showed higher osteoconductive potential and a greater new bone area compared with the other two biomaterials. The block bone substitutes used in the present in vivo study showed advantageous in terms of maintenance of their original form in bony defect. However, the positive impact of all biomaterials on new bone formation and replacement of bone was minor even at 12 months. These findings indicate that block bone substitutes are not well suited to vertical bone augmentation. Further investigations are required to improve the insufficient new bone volume for promising clinical results.
The findings of this study suggest that recommendations when low dose 3D multislice CT or low dose cone beam imaging is not available, the results of this research may be useful in providing indicators for selecting the design of the placement site.
Autologous bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthopedics, and traumatology. Autologous bone grafts not only replace missing bone, they also support the complex process of bone regeneration. This favorable behavior of autografts is attributed to the three characteristics: osteoconductivity, osteogenicity, and osteoinductivity. However, there is another aspect: Bone grafts release a myriad of molecules, including growth factors, which can target mesenchymal cells involved in bone regeneration. The paracrine properties of bone grafts can be studied in vitro by the use of bone-conditioned medium (BCM). Here we present a protocol on how to prepare bone-conditioned medium from native pig cortical bone, and bone that underwent thermal processing or demineralization. Cells can be directly exposed to BCM or seeded onto biomaterials, such as collagen membranes, previously soaked with BCM. We give examples for in vitro bioassays with mesenchymal cells on the expression of TGF-β regulated genes. The presented protocols should encourage to further reveal the paracrine effects of bone grafts during bone regeneration and open a path for translational research in the broad field of reconstructive surgery.
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