First-line administration of coagulation factor concentrates combined with point-of-care testing was associated with decreased incidence of blood transfusion and thrombotic/thromboembolic events.
Fluid resuscitation after massive hemorrhage in major surgery and trauma may result in extensive hemodilution and coagulopathy, which is of a multifactorial nature. Although coagulopathy is often perceived as hemorrhagic, extensive hemodilution affects procoagulants as well as anticoagulant, profibrinolytic, and antifibrinolytic elements, leading to a complex coagulation disorder. Reduced thrombin activation is partially compensated by lower inhibitory activities of antithrombin and other protease inhibitors, whereas plasma fibrinogen is rapidly decreased proportional to the extent of hemodilution. Adequate fibrinogen levels are essential in managing dilutional coagulopathy. After extensive hemodilution, fibrin clots are more prone to fibrinolysis because major antifibrinolytic proteins are decreased.Fresh frozen plasma, platelet concentrate, and cryoprecipitate are considered the mainstay hemostatic therapies. Purified factor concentrates of plasma origin and from recombinant synthesis are increasingly used for a rapid restoration of targeted factors. Future clinical studies are necessary to establish the specific indication, dosing, and safety of novel hemostatic interventions.
Severe trauma-related bleeding is associated with high mortality. Standard coagulation tests provide limited information on the underlying coagulation disorder. Whole-blood viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry or thrombelastography offer a more comprehensive insight into the coagulation process in trauma. The results are available within minutes and they provide information about the initiation of coagulation, the speed of clot formation, and the quality and stability of the clot. Viscoelastic tests have the potential to guide coagulation therapy according to the actual needs of each patient, reducing the risks of over- or under-transfusion. The concept of early, individualized and goal-directed therapy is explored in this review and the AUVA Trauma Hospital algorithm for managing trauma-induced coagulopathy is presented.
Hemostatic therapy based on POC testing reduced patient exposure to allogenic blood products and provided significant benefits with respect to clinical outcomes.
Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a point-of-care viscoelastic method and enables to assess viscoelastic profiles of whole blood in various clinical settings. ROTEM-guided bleeding management has become an essential part of patient blood management (PBM) which is an important concept in improving patient safety. Here, ROTEM testing and hemostatic interventions should be linked by evidence-based, setting-specific algorithms adapted to the specific patient population of the hospitals and the local availability of hemostatic interventions. Accordingly, ROTEM-guided algorithms implement the concept of personalized or precision medicine in perioperative bleeding management ('theranostic' approach). ROTEM-guided PBM has been shown to be effective in reducing bleeding, transfusion requirements, complication rates, and health care costs. Accordingly, several randomized-controlled trials, meta-analyses, and health technology assessments provided evidence that using ROTEM-guided algorithms in bleeding patients resulted in improved patient's safety and outcomes including perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, the implementation of ROTEM in the PBM concept requires adequate technical and interpretation training, education and logistics, as well as interdisciplinary communication and collaboration. Fig. 1. ROTEM trace ('temogram') displaying the clinically most important parameters and their informative value. FDPs: fibrin (ogen) split products. Courtesy of Klaus Görlinger, Germany.
Background: Massive bleeding and transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Patients and Methods: We analysed the transfusion requirements after implementation of point-of-care (POC) coagulation management algorithms based on early, calculated, goal-directed therapy with fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in different perioperative settings (trauma surgery, visceral and transplant surgery (VTS), cardiovascular surgery (CVS) and general and surgical intensive care medicine) at 3 different hospitals (AUVA Trauma Centre Salzburg, University Hospital Innsbruck and University Hospital Essen) in 2 different countries (Austria and Germany). Results: In all institutions, the implementation of POC coagulation management algorithms was associated with a reduction in the transfusion requirements for FFP by about 90% (Salzburg 94%, Innsbruck 88% and Essen 93%). Furthermore, PRBC transfusion was reduced by 8.4–62%. The incidence of intraoperative massive transfusion (≧10 U PRBC) could be more than halved in VTS and CVS (2.56 vs. 0.88%; p < 0.0001 and 2.50 vs. 1.06%; p = 0.0007, respectively). Platelet transfusion could be reduced by 21–72%, except in CVS where it increased by 115% due to a 5-fold increase in patients with dual antiplatelet therapy (2.7 vs. 13.7%; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The implementation of perioperative POC coagulation management algorithms based on early, calculated, goaldirected therapy with fibrinogen concentrate and PCC is associated with a reduction in the transfusion requirements for FFP, PRBC and platelets as well as with a reduced incidence of massive transfusion. Thus, the limited blood resources can be used more efficiently.
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic blood products transfusion during liver transplantation (LT) can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Data on thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided coagulation management with coagulation factor concentrates (CFCs)-fibrinogen concentrate and/or prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC)-are sparse. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the safety events observed with this approach in our clinic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: LT patients from January 2009 to December 2010 (n = 266) were identified by chart review. A ROTEM-based algorithm with CFC guided the hemostatic therapy. Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate thrombosis in the hepatic artery, portal vein, and hepatic veins. Stroke, myocardial isch-emia, pulmonary embolism, and transfusion variables were recorded. Patients receiving CFC were included in the CFC group (n = 156); those not receiving CFC were included in the non-CFC group (n = 110). Safety events were compared between these two groups. RESULTS: Allogeneic transfusion(s) in the 266 patients was low, with medians of 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 0-5), 0 (IQR 0-0), and 0 (IQR 0-1) units for red blood cells (RBCs), fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets (PLTs), respectively. Ninety-seven of 266 LTs (36.5%) were performed without RBCs transfusion, 227 (85.3%) without FFP, and 190 (71.4%) without PLTs. There were no significant differences in thrombotic, thrombo-embolic, and ischemic adverse events occurrence between the CFC group and the non-CFC group (11/ 156 patients vs. 5/110; p = 0.31). CONCLUSION: In LT, ROTEM-guided treatment with fibrinogen concentrate and/or PCC did not appear to increase the occurrence of thrombosis and ischemic events compared to patients who did not receive these concentrates. T he median model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in EUROTRANSPLANT has increased from 25 to 35 (match-MELD) in the past 6 years, attributable to the adoption of MELD score as the basis for organ allocation in liver trans-plantation (LT). 1 This increase is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. 2 However, chronic liver disease is associated with multiple changes in coagulation status. On the one hand, the activity and levels of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, and X) and coagulation inhibitors (protein C and S) are decreased, as well as platelet (PLT) count. 3 Levels of tissue factor-expressing cells, von Willebrand factor, and coagulation Factor (F)VIII are often increased. 4,5 The concomitant reduction of pro-and anticoagulants typically leads to rebalanced hemostasis, but the low levels of pro-and anti-coagulants mean that the balance can be easily disturbed, ABBREVIATIONS: ALI = acute lung injury; aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; CFC(s) = coagulation factor concentrate(s); HAT = hepatic artery thrombosis; ICU = intensive care unit; INR = international normalized ratio; IQR = interquartile range; LT(s) = liver transplantation(s); MELD = median model of end-stage liver disease; PCC(s) = prothrombin complex concentrate(...
In this in vitro study, hypothermia produced coagulation changes that were worsened by acidosis whereas acidosis without hypothermia has no significant effect on coagulation, as studied by thromboelastometry. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of coagulation factors and platelet function. Thus, thromboelastometry performed at 37 degrees C overestimated integrity of coagulation during hypothermia in particular in combination with acidosis.
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