The improvement of heat transport is a very important phenomenon in nuclear reactors, solar collectors, heat exchangers, and coolers, which can be achieved by choosing the nanofluid as the functional fluid. Nanofluids improve thermophysical properties; as a result, they have made great progress in engineering, biomedical, and industrial applications. Therefore, a numerical study has been proposed to analyze the flow and heat transport of nanoliquids over an extendable surface near a stagnation point with variable thermal conductivity under the influence of the magnetic field, due to their importance in the engineering field. Nanoliquid attributes explain the Brownian motion and the diffusion of thermophoresis. The effects of the chemical reaction and the uniform internal heat source/heat sink are also considered. The Nachtsheim‐Swigert shooting procedure based on the Runge‐Kutta scheme is used for numerical calculation. The impact of effective parameters on velocity, temperature, and volume fraction of the nanoparticles is shown in the graphs and reported in detail. The surface criteria are also estimated with respect to the shear stress and the rate of heat and mass transfer. The aspects of the Brownian moment and Lorentz force are positively correlated to the thermal field of the nanoliquid. Also, the variable thermal conductivity aspect favors the growth of the thermal boundary layer.
Many chemical reactive methods, like combustion, catalysis, and biochemical involve homogeneous–heterogeneous chemical reaction (HHCR). The collaboration among the heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions is exceedingly multifarious, including the creation and depletion both within the liquid and catalytic surfaces. Here, we observe the influences of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles past an elongating sheet under HHCR. An inclined magnetic field with an acute angle is applied to the direction of the flow. Further, radiative heat, temperature, and exponential space‐based heat source aspects are modifying the thermal equation. The governing nonlinear equations are deciphered by utilizing the Runge–Kutta‐based shooting method. It is found that HHCR reduces the solute layer thickness, whereas the increase in the angle of inclination of applied magnetism thickens momentum layer thickness.
An analysis is carried out on steady two dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible conducting viscous fluid with variable properties over a stretching surface embedded in a saturated porous medium. The flow model is subjected to (i) transverse magnetic field, (ii) variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, (iii) thermodiffusion (Soret effect), (iv) stretching of both plate and free stream (v) pressure gradient in the flow direction is considered non-zero. The Runge-Kutta fourth order method with a self corrective procedure i.e. shooting technique has been applied to solve the governing equations. An interesting result of the analysis is that inversion in formation of velocity boundary layer is due to reversal in stretching ratio. On the other hand, heat transfer leading to formation of thermal boundary layer is not affected significantly. Variable thermal conductivity enhances the temperature distribution. Increase in concentration difference and thermophoresis parameter gives rise to thinner solutal boundary layer. Further, it is remarked that heavier chemically reactive species enhance the rate of solutal transfer at the surface.
The effects of non-uniform heat source/sink and viscous dissipation on MHD boundary layer flow of Williamson nanofluid through porous medium under convective boundary conditions are studied. Surface transport phenomena such as skin friction, heat flux and mass flux are discussed besides the three boundary layers. The striking results reported as: increase in Williamson parameter exhibiting nanofluidity and external magnetic field lead to thinning of boundary layer, besides usual method of suction and shearing action at the plate, a suggestive way of controlling the boundary layer growth. It is easy to implement to augment the strength of magnetic field by regulating the voltage in the circuit. Also, addition of nano particle to the base fluid serves as an alternative device to control the growth of boundary layer and producing low friction at the wall. The present analysis is an outcome of Runge-Kutta fourth order method with a self corrective procedure i.e. shooting method.
Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD flow of Casson nanofluid past an Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD flow of Casson nanofluid past an exponentially stretching sheet exponentially stretching sheet
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