Purpose of reviewThis review presents our current understanding of the way metabolic acidosis induces calcium efflux from bone, and in the process, buffers additional systemic hydrogen ions associated with acidosis. Recent findingsAcid-induced changes in bone mineral are consistent with a role for bone as a proton buffer. In response to metabolic acidosis in an in-vitro bone organ culture system, we observed a fall in mineral sodium, potassium, carbonate and phosphate, which each buffer protons and in vivo should increase systemic pH towards the physiologic normal. Initially, metabolic acidosis stimulates physicochemical mineral dissolution and subsequently cell-mediated bone resorption. Acidosis suppresses the activity of bone-resorbing cells, osteoblasts, decreasing gene expression of specific matrix proteins and alkaline phosphatase activity. There is concomitant acid stimulation of prostaglandin production by osteoblasts, which acting in a paracrine manner increases synthesis of the osteoblastic receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The acid induction of RANKL then stimulates osteoclastic activity and recruitment of new osteoclasts to promote bone resorption and buffering of the proton load. Both the regulation of RANKL and acid-induced calcium efflux from bone are mediated by prostaglandins. Summary Metabolic acidosis, which occurs during renal failure, renal insufficiency or renal tubular acidosis, results in decreased systemic pH and is associated with an increase in urine calcium excretion. The apparent protective function of bone to help maintain systemic pH, which has a clear survival advantage for mammals, will come partly at the expense of its mineral stores. Abbreviations GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase HCO 3 7 bicarbonate ion MGP matrix gla protein PGHS prostaglandin G/H synthase PTH parathyroid hormone RANK receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B RANKL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand TGF-b transforming growth factor beta
Metabolic acidosis inhibits osteoblastic bone formation and stimulates osteoclastic resorption. To determine whether acidosis alters expression of RNA for the osteoclastic differentiation factor RANKL, mouse calvariae were incubated in neutral or physiologically acidic media. Acidosis resulted in a significant cyclo-oxygenasedependent increase in RANKL RNA levels, which would be expected to induce the associated increase in bone resorption.Introduction: Metabolic acidosis increases net calcium efflux from bone, initially through physicochemical mechanisms and later through predominantly cell-mediated mechanisms. Acidosis decreases osteoblastic bone formation and increases osteoclastic resorption. The growth and maturation of osteoclasts, derived from hematopoietic precursors in the monocyte/macrophage lineage, are dependent on the interplay of a number of factors. Commitment of pre-osteoclasts to osteoclasts is induced by the interaction of the osteoclastic cell-surface receptor RANK with a ligand expressed by osteoblasts, RANKL. The RANK/RANKL interaction not only initiates a differentiation cascade that culminates in mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts but also increases osteoclastic resorptive capacity and survival. Methods: To test the hypothesis that metabolic acidosis increases expression of RANKL, we cultured neonatal mouse calvariae in acidic (initial medium pH ϳ7.1 and [HCO 3
Metabolic acidosis induces calcium efflux from bone and in the process buffers the additional hydrogen ions. Initially metabolic acidosis stimulates physicochemical mineral dissolution and then cell-mediated bone resorption. Acidosis increases activity of the bone resorbing cells, the osteoclasts, and decreases activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts. Osteoblastic immediate early response genes are inhibited as are genes controlling matrix formation.
Metabolic acidosis increases urine Ca without increasing intestinal absorption, leading to bone Ca loss. It is unclear how bone cells detect the increase in proton concentration. To determine which G protein-coupled proton sensing receptors are expressed in bone, PCR was performed, and products were detected for OGR1, TDAG8, G2A, and GPR4. We tested the hypothesis that the G protein-coupled proton sensor, OGR1, is an H+-sensing receptor in bone. To determine whether acid-induced bone resorption involves OGR1, we incubated mouse calvariae in neutral pH (NTL) or acidic (MET) medium ± the OGR1 inhibitor CuCl2. CuCl2 decreased MET-induced Ca efflux. We used fluorescent imaging of perfused bone cells to determine whether MET increases Cai. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid, flow-independent, increase in Cai in individual bone cells. To determine whether transfection of OGR1 into a heterologous cell type would increase Cai in response to H+, we perfused Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with mouse OGR1 cDNA. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid increase in Cai in OGR1-transfected CHO cells. These data indicate that OGR1 induces an increase in Cai in response to MET and is a prime candidate for an osteoblast proton sensor.
Metabolic acidosis induces net calcium efflux from bone through a decrease in osteoblastic formation and an increase in osteoclastic resorption. We tested the hypothesis that changes in external pH would alter the expression of genes critical to the function of mouse calvarial bone cells, predominantly osteoblasts. Cells were cultured in physiologically neutral pH medium until confluent and then stimulated with fresh medium at either neutral or acidic pH. Among a group of immediate early response genes, including egr-1, junB, c-jun, junD, and c-fos, only egr-1 stimulation was modulated by changes in medium pH. At pH 7.4, RNA for egr-1 was stimulated approximately 10- to 30-fold, 40 min after medium change. A progressive decrease in pH to 6.8 led to a parallel reduction in egr-1 stimulation, and an increase in pH to 7.6 led to an increase in egr-1 stimulation. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide led to a superinduction of egr-1 with preservation of the pH dependency of expression. Osteoblasts synthesize collagen, which is subsequently mineralized. RNA for type 1 collagen was stimulated approximately three- to fivefold, 40 min after medium change. Again the stimulation was inhibited by acidosis and increased by alkalosis. Cycloheximide abolished the pH dependency of expression. These results suggest that small changes in external pH have a significant effect on the expression of certain genes important for osteoblastic function.
Chronic metabolic acidosis induces net calcium efflux from bone mineral through an increase in osteoclastic resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic matrix deposition and mineralization. To determine the effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on the expression of genes necessary for mineralization, we grew primary bone cells, which are principally osteoblasts, to confluence in neutral pH (7.5) medium and then switched the cells either to a neutral pH or to an acidic pH (7.1) differentiation medium. Cells were harvested for RNA at 4- to 7-day intervals for up to 44 days. By 36 days, there was extensive bone nodule formation and mineralization in cells cultured in neutral medium; however, there was a substantial decrease in nodule formation and mineralization in cells cultured in acidic medium. There was a marked increase in matrix Gla protein RNA and an increase in osteopontin RNA in neutral cultures; however, acidic medium almost completely prevented any increase. In contrast, RNA levels for osteonectin and transforming growth factor-β1 were not altered by chronic acidosis. Additional cells were incubated in acid differentiation medium for 1, 2, or 3 wk and then transferred to neutral medium; in each case, there was recovery of matrix Gla protein RNA and osteopontin RNA expression. Still other cells were incubated in neutral differentiation medium for 1, 2, or 3 wk and then transferred to acid medium; in each case there was inhibition of matrix Gla protein RNA and osteopontin RNA expression. Thus metabolic acidosis appears to specifically inhibit RNA accumulation of certain genes whose products may be essential for formation of mature bone matrix.
Chronic metabolic acidosis induces net Ca efflux from bone; this osteoclastic bone resorption is mediated by increased osteoblastic prostaglandin synthesis. Cyclooxygenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis, is present in both constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) forms. We report here that acidosis increases both osteoblastic RNA and protein levels for COX-2 and that genetic deficiency or pharmacologic inhibition of COX-2 significantly reduces acid-induced Ca efflux from bone.Introduction: Incubation of neonatal mouse calvariae in medium simulating physiologic metabolic acidosis induces an increase in osteoblastic prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) release and net calcium (Ca) efflux from bone. Increased PGE 2 is necessary for acid-induced bone resorption, because inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity with indomethacin significantly decreases not only PGE 2 production but also Ca release. Cyclooxygenase is present in both constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) forms. Because COX-2 activity has been implicated in several forms of pathological bone resorption, we tested the hypothesis that COX-2 is critical for acid-induced, cell-mediated bone Ca efflux. Materials and Methods:To determine the effect of metabolic acidosis on COX-2 RNA and protein, primary cells isolated from neonatal CD-1 mouse calvariae were cultured in neutral (Ntl) or physiologically acidic medium (Met). RNA levels for COX-2 and COX-1 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Levels of COX-2 and COX-1 protein were measured by immunoblot analysis. To determine the effect of acidosis on bone Ca efflux in genetically deficient COX-2 mice, mice heterozygous for the COX-2 knockout (strain B6;129S7-Ptgs2
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