Terrestrial biosphere models are designed to synthesize our current understanding of how ecosystems function, test competing hypotheses of ecosystem function against observations, and predict responses to novel conditions such as those expected under climate change. Reducing uncertainties in such models can improve both basic scientific understanding and our predictive capacity, but rarely are ecosystem models employed in the design of field campaigns. We provide a synthesis of carbon cycle uncertainty analyses conducted using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer ecoinformatics workflow with the Ecosystem Demography model v2. This work is a synthesis of multiple projects, using Bayesian data assimilation techniques to incorporate field data and trait databases across temperate forests, grasslands, agriculture, short rotation forestry, boreal forests, and tundra. We report on a number of data needs that span a wide array of diverse biomes, such as the need for better constraint on growth respiration, mortality, stomatal conductance, and water uptake. We also identify data needs that are biome specific, such as photosynthetic quantum efficiency at high latitudes. We recommend that future data collection efforts balance the bias of past measurements toward aboveground processes in temperate biomes with the sensitivities of different processes as represented by ecosystem models.
Abstract. This article introduces the absolute quadratic complex formed by all lines that intersect the absolute conic. If ω denotes the 3 × 3 symmetric matrix representing the image of that conic under the action of a camera with projection matrix P, it is shown that ω ≈ PΩP T , where P is the 3×6 line projection matrix associated with P, and Ω is a 6 × 6 symmetric matrix of rank 3 representing the absolute quadratic complex. This simple relation between a camera's intrinsic parameters, its projection matrix expressed in a projective coordinate frame, and the metric upgrade separating this frame from a metric one-as respectively captured by the matrices ω, P, and Ω-provides a new framework for autocalibration, particularly well suited to typical digital cameras with rectangular or square pixels since the skew and aspect ratio are decoupled from the other intrinsic parameters in ω.
Multi-messenger astrophysics is a fast-growing, interdisciplinary field that combines data, which vary in volume and speed of data processing, from many different instruments that probe the Universe using different cosmic messengers: electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, gravitational waves and neutrinos. In this Expert Recommendation, we review the key challenges of real-time observations of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic and astroparticle counterparts, and make a number of recommendations to maximize their potential for scientific discovery. These recommendations refer to the design of scalable and computationally efficient machine learning algorithms; the cyber-infrastructure to numerically simulate astrophysical sources, and to process and interpret multi-messenger astrophysics data; the management of gravitational wave detections to trigger real-time alerts for electromagnetic and astroparticle follow-ups; a vision to harness future developments of machine learning and cyber-infrastructure resources to cope with the big-data requirements; and the need to build a community of experts to realize the goals of multi-messenger astrophysics.
We present Brown Dog, two highly extensible services that aim to leverage any existing pieces of code, libraries, services, or standalone software (past or present) towards providing users with a simple to use and programmable means of automated aid in the curation and indexing of distributed collections of uncurated and/or unstructured data. Data collections such as these encompassing large varieties of data, in addition to large amounts of data, pose a significant challenge within modern day "Big Data" efforts. The two services, the Data Access Proxy (DAP) and the Data Tilling Service (DTS), focusing on format conversions and content based analysis/extraction respectively, wrap relevant conversion and extraction operations within arbitrary software, manages their deployment in an elastic manner, and manages job execution from behind a deliberately compact REST API. We describe both the motivation and need/scientific drivers for such services, the constituent components that allow for arbitrary software/code to be used and managed, and lastly an evaluation of the systems capabilities and scalability.
In Fall 2020, universities saw extensive transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among their populations, threatening health of the university and surrounding communities, and viability of in-person instruction. Here we report a case study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where a multimodal “SHIELD: Target, Test, and Tell” program, with other non-pharmaceutical interventions, was employed to keep classrooms and laboratories open. The program included epidemiological modeling and surveillance, fast/frequent testing using a novel low-cost and scalable saliva-based RT-qPCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 that bypasses RNA extraction, called covidSHIELD, and digital tools for communication and compliance. In Fall 2020, we performed >1,000,000 covidSHIELD tests, positivity rates remained low, we had zero COVID-19-related hospitalizations or deaths amongst our university community, and mortality in the surrounding Champaign County was reduced more than 4-fold relative to expected. This case study shows that fast/frequent testing and other interventions mitigated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at a large public university.
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