O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as prevalências e fatores associados à atividade física insuficiente, comportamento sedentário e ausência nas aulas de Educação Física em escolares do Ensino Médio. O questionário COMPAC (Comportamento do Adolescente Catarinense) foi respondido por 5.028 estudantes (15 a 19 anos), de escolas públicas de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil. Foram analisados comportamentos de risco, informações demográficas e sócio-econômicas. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para análises das associações. A prevalência de atividade física insuficiente foi de 28,5% e associou-se a um menor consumo de frutas/verduras (RP = 1,27; IC95%: 1,15-1,40) e estudo noturno (RP = 1,44; IC95%: 1,34-1,54). A prevalência de ausência nas aulas de Educação Física foi de 48,6% e associou-se negativamente à idade e com estar trabalhando (RP = 1,52; IC95%: 1,18-2,19). A prevalência de comportamento sedentário foi de 38,4%, atingindo menos os residentes de áreas rurais (RP = 0,52; IC95%: 0,31-0,83) e que participavam de uma ausência nas aulas de Educação Física semanal (RP = 0,73; IC95%: 0,56-0,95). Os resultados sugerem intervenções com estratégias específicas para cada comportamento analisado.
BackgroundInterventions on adolescents’ lifestyle are important, but the main mechanisms that explain the changes (mediating variables) on lifestyle are unclear. This paper presents the rationale and methods of an intervention program focused on promoting active and healthy lifestyles (especially physical activity [PA] practice and reducing screen time) among Brazilian students-the Fortaleça sua Saúde program (Portuguese for “strengthen your health”).Methods/DesignThis is a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial. Three intervention and three control (no intervention) full-time public schools were randomly selected in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Students (n = 1,272) from classes in Grades 7–9 were eligible, and 1,085 (548 in the intervention and 537 in control schools) completed the baseline and follow-up measures. The program duration was approximately four months and took place in 2014. Intervention strategies focused on teacher training, activities on health in the curriculum, active opportunities in the school environment (the availability of equipment for PA), and health education (health materials for students and parents). Data collection was undertaken before and immediately after the intervention. The primary variables included the practice of PA (weekly PA volume, PA behavior change stage and preference for PA during leisure-time) and screen time (TV and computer/video games). Potential intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental mediators of PA and screen time were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. Other lifestyle components (e.g., eating habits, substance use), psychological (e.g., self-rated health, body satisfaction) and biological (general and abdominal obesity) aspects, as well as academic performance were also evaluated in the total sample. Depressive symptoms, eating disorders, sleep quality, objectively-measured PA, and sedentary time were evaluated in obese students.DiscussionIf effective, this program will contribute to the development of public policies for the promotion of active and healthy lifestyles in youth, especially those from low- and middle-income countries. The main intrapersonal, interpersonal and/or environmental mediators of PA and screen time may also be indicated. Finally, we anticipate that the proposed strategies may be adaptable to public schools and may even be extended to the entire school system.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.Gov: NCT02439827. Registration date: May 3, 2015.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2543-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a associação do índice de massa corporal (IMC) com os níveis de atividade física (AF) e comportamentos sedentários (assistir TV, usar computador ou jogar videogames) em adolescentes de escolas públicas do Estado de Santa Catarina (15-19 anos; n = 5.028). MÉTODOS: As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário desenvolvido e validado para adolescentes. Foram considerados insuficientemente ativos, os jovens que não acumulavam pelo menos 300 minutos/semana de atividades físicas moderadas ou vigorosas. Considerou-se para o uso excessivo de TV e computador/games um tempo > 2 horas/dia; para excesso de peso corporal, utilizou-se a tabela internacional de IMC para adolescentes. RESULTADOS: O excesso de peso corporal foi mais prevalente entre os rapazes (12,7% vs 7,9%, p<0,001), e houve uma maior proporção de moças insuficientemente ativas (37,0% vs 21,0%, p<0,001). A chance de ter excesso de peso corporal foi 74% maior entre os rapazes pouco ativos em comparação com os ativos, e entre as moças de menor renda familiar (OR=1,85) e as que residiam na zona urbana (OR=2,22). A chance de serem menos ativos foi 43% maior entre os rapazes que assistiam mais TV e 73% maior para aqueles com excesso de peso corporal. Nas moças, a chance de pouca atividade física foi 54% maior entre as que trabalhavam. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de excesso de peso corporal foi maior entre os rapazes, mesmo sendo mais ativos do que as moças. Nos rapazes, o excesso de peso estava significativamente associado à menor prática de atividade física e, nas moças, à menor renda familiar e local de moradia.
Background:Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis.Results:A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/ danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58).Conclusions:This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.
BackgroundThere is a lack of evidence regarding clusters of health-related behaviors among adolescents from low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries. This study aimed to identify clustering patterns of health-related behaviors (diet, physical activity [PA] and sedentary behavior [SB]) and association with sociodemographic variables among a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents.MethodsCross-sectional data from the 2015 National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE). A total of 102,072 (females: 51.7%) students in ninth-grade (age: 14.3 ± 1.1 years-old) enrolled in public and private schools were investigated in this study. Healthy and unhealthy diet, PA and SB were measured using a validated questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to identify lifestyle patterns. The methodology for complex analysis and weighting was used to inferential statistical procedures. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between sociodemographic factors and the clusters.ResultsThree reliable and meaningful clusters were identified and labelled as follows: (1) health-promoting SB and diet (32.6%); (2) health-promoting PA and diet (44.9%), and (3) health-risk (22.5%). Compared to boys, girls were less likely to be in clusters 1 (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.78–0.93, p < 0.001) and 2 (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.40–0.46, p < 0.001) than the health-risk cluster. Higher socioeconomic status was positively associated with health-promoting PA and diet, and negatively related to health-promoting SB and diet. Older adolescents were more likely to be in cluster 1 than in cluster 3, compared to younger adolescents.ConclusionApproximately one-quarter of the population (health-risk cluster) reported engaging in multiple risk behaviors. Interventions may need to be tailored to specific adolescent groups, especially considering sociodemographic differences.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12889-018-6203-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact location of these preganglionic neurons. Currently, the EW is thought to consist of two different parts. The first part [termed the preganglionic EW-EWpg], which controls lens accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily consists of cholinergic cells that project to the ciliary ganglion. The second part [termed the centrally projecting EW-EWcp], which is involved in non-ocular functions such as feeding behavior, stress responses, addiction and pain, consists of peptidergic neurons that project to the brainstem, the spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. However, in the literature, we found few reports related to either ascending or descending projections from the EWcp that are compatible with its currently described functions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the ascending and descending projections of the EW in the rat brain. We injected the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the EW or the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B into multiple EW targets as controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential EW-mediated innervation of neuronal populations with known neurochemical signatures, such as melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamic area [LHA] and corticotropin-releasing factor in the central nucleus of the amygdala [CeM]. We observed anterogradely labeled fibers in the LHA, the reuniens thalamic nucleus, the oval part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the zona incerta. We confirmed our EW-LHA and EW-CeM connections using retrograde tracers. We also observed moderate EW-mediated innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the posterior hypothalamus. Our findings provide anatomical bases for previously unrecognized roles of the EW in the modulation of several physiologic systems.
The intervention was effective in promoting improvements in some PA outcomes, but the changes were not sufficient to increase the proportion of those meeting PA recommendations.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers