The Medical Consultation Experience Questionnaire (MCEQ) is a new, brief self-report instrument that can be used with both adult patients and parents of child patients to assess two dimensions of people's experiences interacting with medical practitioners: Alliance and Confusion. In contrast with existing measures, the MCEQ was expected to provide good discrimination across a full range of experience levels and to assess two distinct dimensions of experience with good factor validity. It was developed in a series of 7 preliminary studies (with 758 participants) and tested in 3 subsequent validation studies, which are the focus of the present report. Study 1 was an Internet sample of 199 parents of child patients, Study 2 was a hospital sample of 173 parents of child surgery patients, and Study 3 was an Internet sample of 204 adult patients. A confirmatory factor analysis specifying strict measurement invariance across the 3 groups produced a good fit. An item response theory analysis suggested that scales on the MCEQ provide good discrimination across a wide range of experience levels. The new scales measuring Alliance and Confusion each had a distinct pattern of convergent validity associations with criterion variables regarding alternate measures of consultation experience, treatment context, and patient-reported perception, behavior, and affect. Results support the validity of the MCEQ and suggest that Alliance and Confusion are two distinct and informative dimensions of medical consultation experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Congenital auricular anomalies are common sources of aesthetic concern and psychosocial distress for both children and their parents. Only one-third of these anomalies self-correct, leaving a large need for acceptable corrective methods. Otoplasty is often the standard treatment; however, newer nonsurgical methods, including splinting and molding in the neonatal period, have shown favorable results without the complications of surgical intervention and with the advantage of early intervention. These treatment options have not yet been widely adopted in Western countries due to delayed diagnosis of auricular deformities and confusion regarding treatment indications and technique.
Background: Hand injuries are common in the pediatric population with a wide spectrum of morbidity that can occur. Simple injuries are distinguished from complex injuries by the number of fingers/systems that are involved. The epidemiology of simple and complex operative hand trauma in the pediatric population has not yet been defined. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all pediatric patients requiring operative intervention for hand trauma at a major children’s hospital over a 3-year period (2015-2017). Data pertaining to demographics, mechanism, severity, type of surgery, and other factors related to hand trauma were then analyzed and interpreted. Results: Three hundred seventy-one pediatric hand injuries over a 3-year period required surgical intervention, with 19.2% being classified as complex. The average patient age was 11.0 years. A total of 68.7% of patients were men. Bony injuries made up 86.3% of simple injuries, with the proximal phalanx being the most commonly fractured bone. Complex injuries occurred more frequently in men and required a greater number of surgeries (1.6 vs 1.0). Of the complex injuries, only major injuries (severity score >100) required a significantly greater number of surgeries. Major hand injuries were mostly caused by motorized vehicles and required a significantly greater number of surgeries (3.8), compared with other causes of injuries. Conclusions: Operative hand injuries occur along a spectrum of morbidity in the pediatric population. While most of the injuries are simple and require only 1 procedure, more complex injuries can also occur and deserve a higher level of care and attention.
For optimal results, facial rejuvenation procedures should address both the tissue laxity and volume deflation associated with facial aging. The lift-and-fill face lift, in which fat grafting provides volumetric rejuvenation to the face while surgical lift effectively repositions and removes ptotic and redundant tissue, has revolutionized the plastic surgeon's approach to the aged face. An understanding of the intricate anatomy of distinct facial fat compartments and a systematic method to assess areas of fat atrophy and volume depletion are keys to provide patients with a natural and youthful result. Fat grafting may be used to improve contour in any area treatable by nonautologous injectable fillers, including the temples, forehead, upper and lower orbit, cheeks, perioral region, nasolabial fold, jawline, and chin—with the benefit of a more natural contour and integration with native tissue.
Enophthalmos, or recession of the eye posteriorly and inferiorly, is a potential sequela of orbital trauma and a source of significant cosmetic and functional concern. Late enophthalmos occurs when early reconstruction of the bony orbit fails to completely restore normal orbital shape and volume, resulting in aesthetic deformity and persistent diplopia. In this article, we provide a framework for evaluation of posttraumatic enophthalmos and outline the surgical principles of secondary repair necessary to optimize globe position. With implementation of proper craniofacial exposure, osteotomy, and orbital reconstruction, surgeons may achieve significant improvement in both the aesthetic and functional sequelae of enophthalmos.
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