Background:The club cell secretory protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and low CC16 serum levels have been associated with both risk and progression of COPD, yet the interaction between smoking and CC16 on lung function outcomes remains unknown.
Methods:Utilizing cross-sectional data on United States veterans, CC16 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA and log transformed for analyses. Spirometry was conducted and COPD status was defined by post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC ratio < 0.7. Smoking measures were self-reported on questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were employed to examine associations between CC16 levels and COPD, and lung function with adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted Pearson correlations described relationships between CC16 level and lung function measures, pack-years smoked, and years since smoking cessation.
Results:The study population (N = 351) was mostly male, white, with an average age over 60 years. An interaction between CC16 and smoking status on FEV 1 /FVC ratio was demonstrated among subjects with COPD (N = 245, p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation among former smokers and negative correlation among current or never smokers with COPD. Among former smokers with COPD, CC16 levels were also positively correlated with years since smoking cessation, and inversely related with pack-years smoked. Increasing CC16 levels were associated with lower odds of COPD (OR adj = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.57, P adj < 0.0001).Conclusions: Smoking status is an important effect modifier of CC16 relationships with lung function. Increasing serum CC16 corresponded to increases in FEV 1 /FVC ratio in former smokers with COPD versus opposite relationships in current or never smokers. Additional longitudinal studies may be warranted to assess relationship of CC16 with smoking cessation on lung function among subjects with COPD.
The club cell secretory protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and is a potential early biomarker of lung damage. The CC16 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3741240 risk allele (A) has been inconsistently linked to asthma; other tagging SNPs in the gene have not been explored. The aim was to determine whether CC16 tagging polymorphisms are associated with adult asthma, asthma subtypes or asthma control in the Agricultural Lung Health Study (ALHS).
The ALHS is an asthma case-control study nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Asthma cases were individuals with current doctor diagnosed asthma, likely undiagnosed asthma, or asthma-COPD overlap defined by questionnaire. We also examined asthma subtypes and asthma control. Five CC16 tagging SNPs were imputed to 1000 Genomes Integrated phase 1 reference panel. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between CC16 SNPs and asthma outcomes adjusted for covariates.
The sample included 1120 asthma cases and 1926 controls of European ancestry, with a mean age of 63 years. The frequency of the risk genotype (AA) for rs3741240 was 12.5% (n = 382). CC16 rs3741240 was not associated with adult asthma outcomes. A tagging SNP in the CC16 gene, rs12270961 was associated with uncontrolled asthma (n = 208, ORadj= 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9; p = 0.03).
This study, the largest study to investigate associations between CC16 tagging SNPs and asthma phenotypes in adults, did not confirm an association of rs3741240 with adult asthma. A tagging SNP in CC16 suggests a potential relationship with asthma control.
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