This novel C-C bond formation reaction provides a new synthetic pathway for the preparation of phenanthrenequinone-type compounds and their derivatives, especially in view of the easy affordability of substituted benzil derivatives from the corresponding benzaldehydes.The evolution of the hydrogen gas was followed and measured. The rate of the gas evolution was found to be constant. This observation may indicate that the process is "layer-edge" controlled, i.e. the rate is determined by the surface area of the graphite lattice which contains ordered potassium atoms available for the reaction. This is consistent with the mechanism that we have previously described for the bimolecular reduction of ketoneslZb1. The mechanistic behavior of C8K reactions with ketones, diketones and their analogs is under further investigation.
Arabinogalactan proteins is an umbrella term applied to a highly diverse class of cell surface glycoproteins, many of which contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchors. The structures of protein and glycan moieties of arabinogalactan proteins are overwhelmingly diverse while the "hydroxproline contiguity hypothesis" predicts arabinogalactan modification of members of many families of extracellular proteins. Descriptive studies using monoclonal antibodies reacting with carbohydrate epitopes on arabinogalactan proteins and experimental work using beta-Yariv reagent implicate arabinogalactan proteins in many biological processes of cell proliferation and survival, pattern formation and growth, and in plant microbe interaction. Advanced structural understanding of arabinogalactan proteins and an emerging molecular genetic definition of biological roles of individual arabinogalactan protein species, in conjunction with potentially analogous extracellular matrix components of animals, stimulate hypotheses about their mode of action. Arabinogalactan proteins might be soluble signals, or might act as modulators and coreceptors of apoplastic morphogens; their amphiphilic molecular nature makes them prime candidates of mediators between the cell wall, the plasma membrane, and the cytoplasm.
Monoclonal antibodies recognizing un-esterified (JIM5) and methyl-esterified (JIM7) epitopes of pectin have been used to locate these epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in the root apex of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Both antibodies labelled the walls of cells in all tissues of the developing root apex. Immunogold labelling observed at the level of the electron microscope indicated differential location of the pectin epitopes within the cell walls. The un-esterified epitope was located to the inner surface of the primary cell walls adjacent to the plasma membrane, in the middle lamella and abundantly to the outer surface at intercellular spaces. In contrast, the epitope containing methyl-esterified pectin was located evenly throughout the cell wall. In root apices of certain other species the JIM5 and JIM7 epitopes were found to be restricted to distinct tissues of the developing roots. In the root apex of oat (Avena sativa L.), JIM5 was most abundantly reactive with cell walls at the region of intercellular spaces of the cortical cells. JIM7 was reactive with cells of the cortex and the stele. Neither epitope occurred in walls of the epidermal or root-cap cells. These pattern of expression were observed to derive from the very earliest stages of the development of these tissues in the oat root meristem and were maintained in the mature root. In the coleoptile and leaf tissues of oat seedlings, JIM5 labelled all cells abundantly whereas JIM7 was unreactive. Other members of the Gramineae and also the Chenopodiaceae are shown to express similar restricted spatial patterns of distribution of these pectin epitopes in root apices.
MYB-related transcription factors are known to regulate different branches of flavonoid metabolism in plants and are believed to play wider roles in the regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in general. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of two MYB genes from Antirrhinum represses phenolic acid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants. The inhibition of this branch of phenylpropanoid metabolism appears to be specific to AmMYB308 and AmMYB330, suggesting that they recognize their normal target genes in these transgenic plants. Experiments with yeast indicate that AmMYB308 can act as a very weak transcriptional activator so that overexpression may competitively inhibit the activity of stronger activators recognizing the same target motifs. The effects of the transcription factors on inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism resulted in complex modifications of the growth and development of the transgenic plants. The inhibition of monolignol production resulted in plants with at least 17% less lignin in their vascular tissue. This reduction is of importance when designing strategies for the genetic modification of woody crops.
There is a limited access to liver transplantation, however, many organs are discarded based on subjective assessment only. Here we report the VITTAL clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02740608) outcomes, using normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) to objectively assess livers discarded by all UK centres meeting specific high-risk criteria. Thirtyone livers were enroled and assessed by viability criteria based on the lactate clearance to levels ≤2.5 mmol/L within 4 h. The viability was achieved by 22 (71%) organs, that were transplanted after a median preservation time of 18 h, with 100% 90-day survival. During the median follow up of 542 days, 4 (18%) patients developed biliary strictures requiring retransplantation. This trial demonstrates that viability testing with NMP is feasible and in this study enabled successful transplantation of 71% of discarded livers, with 100% 90-day patient and graft survival; it does not seem to prevent non-anastomotic biliary strictures in livers donated after circulatory death with prolonged warm ischaemia.
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