We report Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Re nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies on Cd(2)Re(2)O(7), the first superconductor among pyrochlore oxides (T(c) approximately 1 K). The Re NQR spectrum at zero magnetic field below 100 K rules out any magnetic or charge order. The spin-lattice relaxation rate below T(c) exhibits a pronounced coherence peak and follows the weak-coupling BCS theory with nearly isotropic energy gap. The results of Cd NMR point to a moderate ferromagnetic enhancement at high temperatures followed by a rapid decrease of the density of states below the structural transition temperature of 200 K.
The 15-day in-patient protocol of low-frequency rTMS/OT is potentially suitable for reducing spasticity as well as improving motor function on the affected upper limb after stroke.
We compared fMRI findings (using SPM99) obtained with repetition task in normal subjects with those of two patients with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia who received speech therapy and showed complete recovery. Both aphasic patients with left hemisphere damage who showed complete recovery exhibited activation of only the compensatory area in the right hemisphere during the repetition task. Recovery from Broca's aphasia involves reorganization and neuromodulation between the external temporopolar area and the anterior superior temporal area of the superior temporal gyrus, putamen and the inferior frontal gyrus, while that from Wernicke's aphasia involves reorganization and neuromodulation between the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal region, the posterior supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule of the parietal region.
Pulse oximeters are monitors that noninvasively measure heart rate and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). Unfortunately, pulse oximetry is prone to artifacts which negatively impact the accuracy of the measurement and can cause a significant number of false alarms. We have developed an algorithm to segment pulse oximetry signals into pulses and estimate the signal quality in real time. The algorithm iteratively calculates a signal quality index (SQI) ranging from 0 to 100. In the presence of artifacts and irregular signal morphology, the algorithm outputs a low SQI number. The pulse segmentation algorithm uses the derivative of the signal to find pulse slopes and an adaptive set of repeated Gaussian filters to select the correct slopes. Cross-correlation of consecutive pulse segments is used to estimate signal quality. Experimental results using two different benchmark data sets showed a good pulse detection rate with a sensitivity of 96.21% and a positive predictive value of 99.22%, which was equivalent to the available reference algorithm. The novel SQI algorithm was effective and produced significantly lower SQI values in the presence of artifacts compared to SQI values during clean signals. The SQI algorithm may help to guide untrained pulse oximeter users and also help in the design of advanced algorithms for generating smart alarms.
ABSTRACrLight-induced swelling of guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from Vicia faba was accompanied by increases in content of K and malate. DCMU inhibited the increase of K+ and malate, and consequently swelling.Effect of light on the activity of selected enzymes that take part in malate formation was studied. When isolated GCP were illuminated, NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) was activated, and the activity reached a maximum within 5 minutes. The enzyme activity underwent 5-to 6-fold increase in the light. Upon turning off the light, the enzyme was inactivated in 5 minutes NAD-MDH and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were not influenced by light. The (28) and V. faba (15,18,24). Linear electron transport is now considered a common feature of GCP2 (12). There are reports that PSII activity is involved in stomatal aperture regulation (22,23) and guard cell volume regulation (8).High rates of photosynthetic 02 evolution in GCP (8) Pro-toplasts. GCP were isolated from lower epidermis of Vicia faba leaves as reported previously (8). MCP were isolated from Vicia leafsegments freed oflower epidermis by enzymic digestion. The enzyme solution for isolation of MCP consisted of 0.01 % Pectolyase Y-23 (Seishin Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Japan), 1% Cellulase Onozuka RS (Yakult Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Japan), 0.2% BSA, 1 ,ug ml-' Pepstatin A (Protein Research Foundation, Japan), 0.6 M mannitol, and 1 mM CaCl2, at pH 5.5 adjusted with HCI. The leaf segments were infiltrated with the enzyme solution, and were incubated for 5 min at 27C. The used enzyme solution was discarded. The leaf segments were further incubated for 1 to 2 h with the newly prepared enzyme solution. Isolated MCP were purified by low-speed centrifugation (1 10g), resuspended in 0.6 M mannitol and 1 mM CaCd2, and kept on ice.Volume and K' Determination. GCP volume and K+ content were determined by a previously described method (6).Determination of Organic Acids. GCP were collected by silicone oil centrifugation as described previously (6), except that the bottom layer was replaced by 20 Ml of 3.5 M ammonium acetate. The bottom layer was cut and dissolved in water. After sonication (Sonifier cell disrupter 185E, Branson, England) for 30 s, the suspension was incubated with 4 volumes of ethanol at 80°C for 30 min, and then dried. The dried sample was dissolved in 250 Ml of H20 and filtered through 0.45 Mm Millipore filter (HV, Nihon Millipore Kogyo, Japan). Organic acids were separated and determined by HPLC using a JASCO Trirotor SR-2 (Japan Spectroscopic Co.) in an anion exchange column, Shodex C-811 (500 x 8 mm 4) with a mobile phase of 2.5 mm HC104 and a flow rate of0.8 ml min-' at 40°C. The mobile phase passed through the column, was mixed with a pH reagent solution which consisted of 3.5 mm Na2HPO4 and 0.2 mM bromocresol purple, and flowed at 1.0 ml min-'. The amount of organic acids in the extracts were estimated from the absorbance change at 829 www.plantphysiol.org on May 10, 2018 -Published by Downloaded from
The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients.Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 ± 17years, time after stroke 57± 55 months) with upper limb hemiparesis categorized as Brunnstrom stages 3–5 forhand–fingers were recruited. They were considered to have reached a plateau state at study entry, based on the lack of any increase in Fugl–Meyer Assessment (FMA) Score inthe last 3 months. During the 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 sessions of rTMS with 1 Hz applied to the contralesional cerebral hemisphere, followed by intensive OT (one-to-one training including shaping techniques and self training). Upper limb motor function was evaluated by FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test at admission and discharge. The spasticity of finger flexors,wrist flexors and elbow flexors in the affected upper limb was also evaluated with Modified Ashworth Scale. The15-day protocol was well tolerated by all patients. Atdischarge, the FMA Score was increased in all 15 patients(17–57 to 18–61 points). Shortening of performance time on Wolf Motor Function Test was noted in 12 patients(44–1584 to 39–1485 s). The Modified Ashworth ScaleScore for some flexor muscles decreased in 12 patients.In conclusion, our 15-day protocol of low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive OT seems feasible not only for improving motor function, but also for reducing spasticity in the affected upper limb in post stroke hemiparetic patients.
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