ObjectiveCancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major component of cancer stroma, can confer aggressive properties to cancer cells by secreting multiple factors. Their phenotypes are stably maintained, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to show the critical role of epigenetic changes in CAFs in maintaining their tumour-promoting capacity and to show the validity of the epigenomic approach in identifying therapeutic targets from CAFs to starve cancer cells.DesignTwelve pairs of primary gastric CAFs and their corresponding non-CAFs (NCAFs) were established from surgical specimens. Genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K27me3 analyses were conducted by BeadArray 450K and ChIP-on-Chip, respectively. Functions of potential a therapeutic target were analysed by inhibiting it, and prognostic impact was assessed in a database.ResultsCAFs had diverse and distinct DNA methylation and H3K27me3 patterns compared with NCAFs. Loss of H3K27me3, but not DNA methylation, in CAFs was enriched for genes involved in stem cell niche, cell growth, tissue development and stromal–epithelial interactions, such as WNT5A, GREM1, NOG and IGF2. Among these, we revealed that WNT5A, which had been considered to be derived from cancer cells, was highly expressed in cancer stromal fibroblasts, and was associated with poor prognosis. Inhibition of secreted WNT5A from CAFs suppressed cancer cell growth and migration.ConclusionsH3K27me3 plays a crucial role in defining tumour-promoting capacities of CAFs, and multiple stem cell niche factors were secreted from CAFs due to loss of H3K27me3. The validity of the epigenetic approach to uncover therapeutic targets for cancer-starving therapy was demonstrated.
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play critical roles in the stability and tonic regulation of vascular homeostasis. VSMCs can switch back and forth between highly proliferative synthetic and fully differentiated contractile phenotypes in response to changes in the vessel environment. Although abnormal phenotypic switching of VSMCs is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty, how control of VSMC phenotypic switching is dysregulated in pathologic conditions remains obscure. We found that inhibition of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) channels facilitated contractile differentiation of VSMCs through plasma membrane hyperpolarization. TRPC6‐deficient VSMCs exhibited more polarized resting membrane potentials and higher protein kinase B (Akt) activity than wild‐type VSMCs in response to TGF‐β1 stimulation. Ischemic stress elicited by oxygen‐glucose deprivation suppressed TGF‐β1‐induced hyperpolarization and VSMC differentiation, but this effect was abolished by TRPC6 deletion. TRPC6‐mediated Ca2+ influx and depolarization coordinately promoted the interaction of TRPC6 with lipid phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of Akt activation. Given the marked up‐regulation of TRPC6 observed in vascular disorders, our findings suggest that attenuation of TRPC6 channel activity in pathologic VSMCs could be a rational strategy to maintain vascular quality control by fine‐tuning of VSMC phenotypic switching.—Numaga‐Tomita, T., Shimauchi, T., Oda, S., Tanaka, T., Nishiyama, K., Nishimura, A., Birnbaumer, L., Mori, Y., Nishida, M. TRPC6 regulates phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells through plasma membrane potential‐dependent coupling with PTEN. FASEB J. 33, 9785–9796 (2019). http://www.fasebj.org
Cardiac hypertrophy, induced by neurohumoral factors, including angiotensin II and endothelin-1, is a major predisposing factor for heart failure. These ligands can induce hypertrophic growth of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) mainly through Ca2+-dependent calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling pathways activated by diacylglycerol-activated transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3/6) heteromultimer channels. Although extracellular nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), is also known as most potent Ca2+-mobilizing ligand that acts on purinergic receptors, ATP never induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here we show that ATP-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) negatively regulates hypertrophic signaling mediated by TRPC3/6 channels in NRCMs. Pharmacological inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) potentiated ATP-induced increases in NFAT activity, protein synthesis, and transcriptional activity of brain natriuretic peptide. ATP significantly increased NO production and protein kinase G (PKG) activity compared to angiotensin II and endothelin-1. We found that ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling requires inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor activation. Interestingly, inhibition of TRPC5, but not TRPC6 attenuated ATP-induced activation of Ca2+/NFAT-dependent signaling. As inhibition of TRPC5 attenuates ATP-stimulated NOS activation, these results suggest that NO-cGMP-PKG axis activated by IP3-mediated TRPC5 channels underlies negative regulation of TRPC3/6-dependent hypertrophic signaling induced by ATP stimulation.
To improve the moving picture quality of TFT LCD-TVs, a lot of investigations about pseudo-impulse driving to LCD have been reported, the method of which decreased contrast ratio. In this paper ,we have investigated 32 inch-in-diagonal HDTV (1366 × 768 pixel ) panels using OCB mode, pseudo-impulse driving, and backlight blinking. High performance of MPRT (8.4 ms), contrast ratio (600:1), brightness (600 cd/m2) and wide viewing angle (>160) have been obtained. It became clear that the only combination of OCB mode using pseudo-impulse driving and blinking backlight can provide the higher performance required specification of TV application.
Chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental electrophilic pollutant, reportedly increases the risk of human cardiac events. We report that exposure to a low, non-neurotoxic dose of MeHg precipitated heart failure induced by pressure overload in mice. Exposure to MeHg at 10 ppm did not induce weight loss typical of higher doses but caused mitochondrial hyperfission in myocardium through the activation of Drp1 by its guanine nucleotide exchange factor filamin-A. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with cilnidipine, an inhibitor of the interaction between Drp1 and filamin-A, suppressed mitochondrial hyperfission caused by low-dose MeHg exposure. Modification of cysteine residues in proteins with polysulfides is important for redox signaling and mitochondrial homeostasis in mammalian cells. We found that MeHg targeted rat Drp1 at Cys624, a redox-sensitive residue whose SH side chain forms a bulky and nucleophilic polysulfide (Cys624-S(n)H). MeHg exposure induced the depolysulfidation of Cys624-S(n)H in Drp1, which led to filamin-dependent activation of Drp1 and mitochondrial hyperfission. Treatment with NaHS, which acts as a donor for reactive polysulfides, reversed MeHg-evoked Drp1 depolysulfidation and vulnerability to mechanical load in rodent and human cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts. These results suggest that depolysulfidation of Drp1 at Cys624-S(n)H by low-dose MeHg increases cardiac fragility to mechanical load through filamin-dependent mitochondrial hyperfission.
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