The Morpho-butterfly wing reflects interfered brilliant blue, which originates from nanostructures on its scales, for any incidence angle of white light. We have, for the first time, fabricated a Morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure using focused-ion-beam chemical-vapor-deposition (FIB-CVD) and observed brilliant blue reflection from this quasi-structure with an optical microscope. We measured the reflection from real Morpho-butterfly scales and from the quasi-structure with a photonic multi-channel spectral analyzer system. The reflection spectra of the quasi-structure were very similar to those of Morpho-butterfly scales.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been extensively applied in industries owing to their excellent characteristics such as high hardness. In particular, there is a growing demand for their use as protective films for mechanical parts owing to their excellent wear resistance and low friction coefficient. DLC films have been deposited by various methods and many deviate from the DLC regions present in the ternary diagrams proposed for sp3 covalent carbon, sp2 covalent carbon, and hydrogen. Consequently, redefining the DLC region on ternary diagrams using DLC coatings for mechanical and electrical components is urgently required. Therefore, we investigate the sp3 ratio, hydrogen content, and other properties of 74 types of amorphous carbon films and present the classification of amorphous carbon films, including DLC. We measured the sp3 ratios and hydrogen content using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and Rutherford backscattering-elastic recoil detection analysis under unified conditions. Amorphous carbon films were widely found with nonuniform distribution. The number of carbon atoms in the sp3 covalent carbon without bonding with hydrogen and the logarithm of the hydrogen content were inversely proportional. Further, we elucidated the DLC regions on the ternary diagram, classified the amorphous carbon films, and summarized the characteristics and applications of each type of DLC.
Mechanical characteristics and applications of diamondlike-carbon cantilevers fabricated by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor depositionMechanical characteristics and its annealing effect of diamondlike-carbon nanosprings fabricated by focused-ionbeam chemical vapor depositionThe Morpho-butterfly wing reflects interfered brilliant blue, which originates from nanostructures on its scales, for any incidence angle of white light. We have fabricated a Morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure using focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition and observed brilliant blue reflection from this quasistructure with an optical microscope. We measured the reflection from real Morpho-butterfly scales and from the quasistructure with a photonic multichannel spectral analyzer system. The reflection spectra of the quasistructure were very similar to those of Morpho-butterfly scales.
We prove that local observables of the set of GHZ operators for particles of spin higher than 1 2 reduce to direct sums of the spin-1 2 operators σ x and σ y and, therefore, no new contradictions with local realism arise by considering them.
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