We studied the association of the serum levels of the microRNA family members miR-320a/-b/-c with clinico-pathological data to assess their applicability as diagnostic biomarker in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. The levels of miR-320a/-b/-c in 3 groups were evaluated by qRT-PCR (145 patients with PCa, 31 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 19 healthy controls). The levels of the three family members of miR-320 were directly correlated within each group (P < 0.001), but they differed significantly among the three groups (P < 0.001). The serum levels of the miR-320 family members were significantly increased in older patients compared to younger patients (≤ 66 years vs. > 66 years, P ≤ 0.001). In addition, the levels of all three miR-320 family members were significantly different in patients with low tumor stage compared with those with high tumor stage (miR-320a: P = 0.034; miR-320b: P = 0.006; miR-320c: P = 0.007) and in patients with low serum PSA compared with those with high serum PSA (≤ 4 ng vs. > 4 ng; miR-320a: P = 0.003; miR-320b: P = 0.003; miR-320c: P = 0.006). The levels of these miRNAs were inversely correlated with serum PSA levels. Detection in the serum samples of PCa patients with or without PSA relapse revealed higher levels of miR-320a/-b/-c in the group without PSA relapse before/after radical prostatectomy than in that with PCa relapse.In summary, the differences among the PCa/BPH/healthy control groups with respect to miR-320a/-b/-c levels in conjunction with higher levels in patients without a PSA relapse than in those with a relapse suggest the diagnostic potential of these miRNA-320 family members in PCa patients.
This study aimed to assess the applicability of miR‐375 in combination with the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) protein as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) patients. miR‐375 levels by qRT‐PCR and suPAR levels by ELISA were evaluated in serum samples from 146 PCa patients, 35 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 18 healthy controls. Antigen levels of suPAR differed between healthy controls and PCa or BPH patients, whereas miR‐375 levels differed between PCa and BPH patients or healthy controls (p < 0.001). Additionally, suPAR levels differed between the Gleason sum groups GS = 7 versus GS > 7, with higher levels in the latter group (p = 0.011), and miR‐375 levels were higher in the tumor stage group T3‐T4 compared with the T1‐T2 group (p = 0.039). A high concentration of suPAR was associated with a poor disease‐specific survival (DSS; p = 0.039). The combination of suPAR and miR‐375 levels identified a patient group possessing high levels for both parameters. This was associated with a poorer 10‐year overall survival (OS) and DSS, with a 6.38‐fold increased risk of death and a 7.68‐fold increased risk of tumor‐related death (p = 0.00026 and p = 0.014; univariate Cox's regression analysis). In a multivariate Cox's regression analysis PCa patients with high levels of suPAR and miR‐375 showed a 5.72‐fold increased risk of death in OS (p = 0.006). In summary, the differences between the PCa/BPH/healthy control cohorts for either suPAR and miR‐375 levels in conjunction with the association of combined high suPAR/miR‐375 levels with a poor prognosis suggest a diagnostic and prognostic impact for PCa patients.
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Although there are several well-established molecular and immunological classifications, markers for tumor cells and immune cells that are associated with prognosis are still needed. The chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) could be such a marker. We analyzed the expression of CCL2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 168 muscle invasive BCa samples using a tissue microarray. Application of a single cut-off for the staining status of tumor cells (TCs; positive vs. negative) and immune cells (ICs; ≤6% of ICs vs. >6% of ICs) revealed 57 cases (33.9%) and 70 cases (41.7%) with CCL2-positive TCs or ICs, respectively. IHC results were correlated with clinicopathological and survival data. Positive CCL2 staining in TCs was associated with shorter overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.004, p = 0.036, and p = 0.047; log rank test) and appeared to be an independent prognostic factor for OS (RR = 1.70; p = 0.007; multivariate Cox’s regression analysis). In contrast, positive CCL2 staining in the ICs was associated with longer OS, DSS, and RFS (p = 0.032, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001; log rank test) and appeared to be an independent prognostic factor for DSS (RR = 1.77; p = 0.031; multivariate Cox’s regression analysis). Most interestingly, after separating the patients according to their lymph node status (N0 vs. N1+2), CCL2 staining in the ICs was differentially associated with prognosis. In the N0 group, CCL2 positivity in the ICs was a positive independent prognostic factor for OS (RR = 1.99; p = 0.014), DSS (RR = 3.17; p = 0.002), and RFS (RR = 3.10; p = 0.002), whereas in the N1+2 group, CCL2 positivity was a negative independent factor for OS (RR = 3.44; p = 0.019)) and RFS (RR = 4.47; p = 0.010; all multivariate Cox’s regression analyses). In summary, CCL2 positivity in TCs is a negative prognostic factor for OS, and CCL2 can mark ICs that are differentially associated with prognosis depending on the nodal stage of BCa patients. Therefore, CCL2 staining of TCs and ICs is suggested as a prognostic biomarker for BCa patients.
BackgroundGP88/Progranulin is a well-recognized cell growth promoter in different cancers, and elevated serum GP88 levels have been described as negative prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, serum levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients have not yet been studied.Material and MethodsWe analyzed serum GP88 levels by enzyme immunosorbent assay and correlated them with clinicopathological parameters in PCa patients. PCa patients were separated into two groups based on the serum GP88 median level (low ≤44.56 ng/mL or high >44.56 ng/mL) and according to their median age (younger ≤66 years or elder patients >66 years).ResultsLow serum GP88 levels were more often detected in younger patients and high levels in elder patients (P=0.018; Fisher’s exact test). PCa patients were separated into three groups, Gleason score (GS) ≤6; GS=7; and GS≥8. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, we could distinguish GS≤6 from GS=7 [area under the curve (AUC): 0.646; P=0.018] and GS≤6 from GS≥8 (AUC: 0.629; P=0.048) but not GS=7 from GS≥8. For survival analysis, GP88 levels were separated into two groups by an optimized cutoff value of 36.92 ng/mL. Using this GP88 stratification, all PCa patients and younger patients with a low serum GP88 level had a significantly better overall survival compared with patients with higher serum GP88 levels (log-rank test P=0.010 and P=0.024).ConclusionSerum GP88 levels are significantly different depending on age and GS, and they are associated with the prognosis of PCa patients.
Piwi-like gene family members (Piwil 1-4) are considered stem cell-associated genes/proteins. These are expressed predominantly in germline cells, but are re-expressed in different tumors. Piwil 1-4 gene expression has not previously been studied and correlated with clinicopathological parameters in renal cell carcinomas (RCC). The Piwil 1-4 transcript levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in 73 clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissues and corresponding normal tissues. The transcript levels of Piwil 1, 2 and 4 were strongly and significantly correlated with each other, in both the tumor tissues and the normal tissues (P<0.001; Spearman's rank test). Piwil 4 gene expression was significantly higher in the ccRCC tissues than that in the corresponding normal renal tissues (P<0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). When the ccRCC patient cohort was divided according to the median Piwil 1-4 expression into low- and high-expression groups and according to age into younger (≤64years) and older patient groups (>64years), the younger patients displayed significantly higher levels of Piwil 1 mRNA in comparison to the older patients (P=0.010; Fisher's exact test). Interestingly, Piwil 1 expression was left-right polarized in the normal tissues but not in the tumor tissues (P=0.004; Fisher's exact test). Altogether, associations were determined between the Piwi-like family member expression levels and clinicopathological parameters of ccRCC, suggesting a potential role for these genes/proteins in ccRCC diagnostics and tumorigenesis as well as in renal tissue embryology.
Piwi-like proteins are essential for stem-cell maintenance and self-renewal in multicellular organisms. We analyzed the expression of Piwi-like 1 and Piwi-like 2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 95 muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) samples using tissue microarray. Application of an immunoreactive score (IRS) revealed 37 and 45 patients who were Piwi-like 1 and -2 positive (IRS > 2). IHC results were correlated with clinico-pathological and survival data. The expression of both proteins was positively correlated with each other, lymph node metastasis and expression of CK20 and GATA 3. A negative correlation for both proteins was detected for disease-specific survival (DSS), recurrence, Ki67/MIB1 proliferation index, and CK5 expression. Detection of Piwi-like 1 protein positivity was associated with poor DSS (P = 0.019; log rank test, Kaplan-Meier analysis), and in multivariate Cox’s analysis (adjusted to tumor stage and tumor grade), it was an independent prognostic factor for DSS (RR = 2.16; P = 0.011). Piwi-like 2 positivity was associated with DSS (P = 0.008) and recurrence-free survival (RFS; P = 0.040), and in multivariate Cox’s analysis, Piwi-like 2 positivity was an independent prognostic factor for DSS (RR = 2.46; P = 0.004) and RFS (RR = 3.0; P = 0.003). Most interestingly, in the basal type patient subgroup (CK5+/GATA3−), Piwi-like 2 positivity was associated with poorer DSS, OS and RFS (P < 0.001, P = 0.004 and P = 0.05; log rank test). In multivariate analysis, Piwi-like 2 positivity was an independent prognostic factor for DSS (RR = 12.70; P = 0.001), OS (RR = 6.62; = 0.008) and RFS (RR=13.0; P = 0.040). In summary, Piwi-like 1 and -2 positivity are associated with clinico-pathological factors and survival. Both Piwi-like proteins are suggested as biomarkers for MIBC patients.
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare renal cell carcinoma subtype with a very poor prognosis. There have been only a few studies on gene expression analysis in CDCs. We compared the gene expression profiles of two CDC cases with those of eight normal tissues of renal cell carcinoma patients. At a threshold of |log2fold-change| ≥1, 3349 genes were upregulated and 1947 genes were downregulated in CDCs compared to the normal samples. Pathway analysis of the deregulated genes revealed that cancer pathways and cell cycle pathways were most prominent in CDCs. The most upregulated gene was keratin 17, and the most downregulated gene was cubilin. Among the most downregulated genes were four solute carrier genes (SLC3A1, SLC9A3, SLC26A7, and SLC47A1). The strongest negative correlations between miRNAs and mRNAs were found between the downregulated miR-374b-5p and its upregulated target genes HIST1H3B, HK2, and SLC7A11 and between upregulated miR-26b-5p and its downregulated target genes PPARGC1A, ALDH6A1, and MARC2. An upregulation of HK2 and a downregulation of PPARGC1A, ALDH6A1, and MARC2 were observed at the protein level. Survival analysis of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) dataset showed for the first time that low gene expression of MARC2, cubilin, and SLC47A1 and high gene expression of KRT17 are associated with poor overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients. Altogether, we identified dysregulated protein-coding genes, potential miRNA-target interactions, and prognostic markers that could be associated with CDC.
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