In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-g and TNF-a genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-g genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.
Recebido em 13/4/2009 Mapping of quantitative trait loci mapping in chromosomes 5, 7 and 8 of swinesABSTRACT -The aim of this experiment was to map QTL in chromosomes 5, 7 and 8 and to associate them to carcass traits, carcass cuts, meat quality, performance and internal organs of swines. An F2 offspring with 614 animals was produced from the matting of two Brazilian naturalized Piau boars with 18 commercial females (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The population was genotyped for 14 microsatellite markers covering chromosomes 5, 7 and 8. After that, it was built the linkage map for each chromosome. Analysis of association were done using interval mapping by regression for QTL detection. For carcass and cuts of carcass traits, 20 QTL were mapped in the three chromosomes, whereas for traits of meat quality, only three QTL were found on chromosomes 7 and 8. Among them, significant QTL at 5% in the genome were found for midline lower backfat thickness above the last lumbar vertebrae on chromosome 5; and for total length of small intestine, abdominal fat weight and brightness on chromosome 8. For carcass length by the Brazilian method and carcass length by the American method, it was found significant QTL at 1% in the genome on chromosome 7.The results found in this work will facilitate future researches as fine mapping and identification of genes that control body composition and meat quality and that will be able to be incorporated in marker-assisted selection programs to accelerate genetic improvement in swine populations, in addition to help a better understanding of the physiology of traits in swine production.
RESUMOA realização do presente estudo teve como objetivo mapear Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) de carcaça e qualidade de carne em uma população F2 de suínos desenvolvida pelo cruzamento de dois reprodutores da raça brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas comerciais (Landrace x Large White x Pietrain). O mapa de ligação para essa população foi construído após a genotipagem de 684 animais para 35 marcadores microssatélites. Os dados foram analisados pelo mapeamento por intervalo usando-se sexo, lote e genótipo halotano como efeitos fixos e peso de carcaça ao abate, peso da carcaça direita e idade ao abate como covariáveis. Um total de 18 QTLs foi encontrado; os QTLs para maior espessura de toucinho na região da copa, na linha dorsolombar, e a perda por cozimento foram significativos em nível de 5% genômico. A característica espessura de toucinho foi essencialmente associada aos alelos da raça Piau, conhecido como porco tipo banha. As informações dos QTLs significativos encontrados servem para futuros estudos de mapeamento fino para identificação de genes a serem usados em conjunto com os métodos tradicionais de seleção, para melhorar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento, assim como prover informação acerca da fisiologia envolvida no desenvolvimento das características quantitativas dos suínos.Palavras-chave: suínos, raça Piau, marcador molecular, microssátelites ABSTRACT The accomplishment of the present study had as objective to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated to carcass and quality traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain
Current assay evaluates thermoregulatory characteristics of native sheep in pregnancy and supplemented in grazing system. Were used 24 multiparous lactating ewes, 12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova, with an average weight of 52.6 and 31.3 kg, respectively, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized split-split plot design. Physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were measured in that order during the morning and afternoon, 06-07 and 13-14 h, respectively, every seven days, totaling 10 samples. The environmental temperature was higher (P<0.05) in the afternoon, probably due to the higher incidence and intensity of sunlight at this time, with index globe temperature and humidity presenting values that characterize an environment of danger to animal production, characteristics of the semiarid. Effect (P<0.05) turn and race on the thermoregulatory characteristics of the sheep were found, showing unfavorable conditions in the afternoon with greater intensity of use of heat dissipation mechanisms by Santa Inês ewes. Assessing the effect of supplementation on the physiology of these sheep, it appears that there is an influence (P<0.05) on the RR and HR, with higher values for Santa Inês ewes subjected to 1.5% concentrate diet. However, RT remained within the normal range, indicating that they are adapted breeds rearing conditions and experimental diet that have efficient mechanisms in respiratory heat dissipation, indicating also that they are qualified to productive farm animals in semi-arid conditions.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the coefficient of variation (CV) and to establish classification ranges for the main variables evaluated in experimentation with poultrys through different methods. The CV data of different response variables observed in poultry articles (broilers, laying hens, roosters and quails) published in five national journals were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel 2010® worksheet. Afterwards, they were subjected to normality evaluation through the Shapiro-Wilk method, and later the following data of the descriptive statistics were utilized: maximum value, minimum value, range, mean, median, standard deviation, midquartile, first quartile, third quartile, interquartile range, and pseudo sigma. According to the values obtained in the descriptive statistics of the CVs of each variable, classification ranges were elaborated for these values, considering six different forms of classification, adapted from the consulted literature. The results indicated that the classification ranges established for CVs in experiments with poultrys are different from those recommended in statistical textbooks. It is possible to utilize midquartile, pseudo sigma, mean and standard deviation through different methods in order to classify the CVs, but the use of the standard deviation promotes incoherent classifications in certain variables, and promotes increase in the amplitude between the lowest and the highest CV value obtained for the classification ranges.
BackgroundMycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia, which causes important economic losses to swine industry. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors which detect microbial presence and initiate the innate as well as the adaptative immune defense. Toll-like receptor 6 is a type I transmembrane protein that recognizes bacterial components. The aim of this study was to compare mRNA expression pattern of TLR6 gene in two genetically distinct groups of pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.MethodsFor each genetic group, peripheral blood was collected just before and 10 days after vaccination from 10 Naturalized Brazilian Piau breed and 10 Commercial White Line serum-negative female piglets. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), reverse transcripted and the qRT-PCR performed using SYBR green fluorescence system, using GAPDH gene as endogenous control. Analyses were performed by UNIVARIATE (Shapiro-Wilk test) and MIXED procedures of SAS software (version 9.0).ResultsIt was observed significant interaction between breed and vaccination, being the TLR6 mRNA expression higher in the Commercial White line than in the Piau breed after vaccination. Furthermore, there was differential expression before and after vaccination in the Commercial White line.ConclusionsAnalysis of in TLR6 gene expression showed difference between the two distinct genetic groups, however, other TLRs gene expression must be evaluated for a better understanding of innate resistance in the pig concerning Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.
-The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fermentative parameters of heart of palm waste produced from Alexander Palm, ensiled with chemical additives. Treatments consisted of silage of the sheath with or without calcium oxide. In the silage without calcium oxide, we evaluated the control silage (without additive) and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg −1 urea (urea). In the silage with calcium oxide, we evaluated the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg −1 calcium oxide (control) and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg −1 urea and 5.0 g kg −1 calcium oxide (urea). Experimental silos were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (inclusion or lack of lime × inclusion or lack of urea), with four replicates. Crude protein concentration was greater in the silages that received urea, whereas in the case of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, the lowest levels were found in the control silage. Control silage had the lowest pH (3.75) and the silages that received lime displayed the lowest lactic acid content. Effluent losses were greater in the control silage and in the silage with lime (56.1 kg t −1 and 58.4 kg t −1 , respectively). Silages prepared with waste from heart of palm production and enriched only with urea showed a better chemical composition and improved fermentation parameter estimates. We recommend the use of this waste only with additives that can improve the chemical characteristics of the forage. Without additives, unwanted fermentation processes may occur and compromise the quality of the silage.
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