Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) consist of B-cell and T-cell aggregates that are initiated de novo in inflamed tissues outside of secondary lymphoid organs. When organized within follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks, ELS contain functional germinal centers that can yield autoantibody-secreting plasma cells and promote autoimmune disease. Intranasal instillation of lupus-prone mice with crystalline silica (cSiO2), a respirable particle linked to human lupus, triggers ELS formation in the lung, systemic autoantibodies, and early onset of glomerulonephritis. Here we tested the hypothesis that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory properties, influences the temporal profile of cSiO2-induced pulmonary ectopic germinal center formation and development of glomerulonephritis. Female NZBWF1 mice (6-wk old) were fed purified isocaloric diets supplemented with 0, 4, or 10 g/kg DHA - calorically equivalent to 0, 2, or 5 g DHA per day consumption by humans, respectively. Beginning at age 8 wk, mice were intranasally instilled with 1 mg cSiO2, or saline vehicle alone, once per wk, for 4 wk. Cohorts were sacrificed 1, 5, 9, or 13 wk post-instillation (PI) of the last cSiO2 dose, and lung and kidney lesions were investigated by histopathology. Tissue fatty acid analyses confirmed uniform dose-dependent DHA incorporation across all cohorts. As early as 1 wk PI, inflammation comprising of B (CD45R+) and T (CD3+) cell accumulation was observed in lungs of cSiO2-treated mice compared to vehicle controls; these responses intensified over time. Marked follicular dendritic cell (FDC; CD21+/CD35+) networking appeared at 9 and 13 wk PI. IgG+ plasma cells suggestive of mature germinal centers were evident at 13 wk. DHA supplementation dramatically suppressed cSiO2-triggered B-cell, T-cell, FDC, and IgG+ plasma cell appearance in the lungs as well as anti-dsDNA IgG in bronchial lavage fluid and plasma over the course of the experiment. cSiO2 induced glomerulonephritis with concomitant B-cell accumulation in the renal cortex at 13 wk PI but this response was abrogated by DHA feeding. Taken together, realistic dietary DHA supplementation prevented initiation and/or progression of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, germinal center development, systemic autoantibody elevation, and resultant glomerulonephritis in this unique preclinical model of environment-triggered lupus.
genes in kidney tissue associated with inflammation, innate/adaptive immunity, IFN, chemokines, and antigen processing, mostly by upregulation; however, feeding DHA dose-dependently suppressed these responses. Taken together, dietary DHA intake in lupus-prone mice impeded cSiO 2 -triggered mRNA signatures known to be involved in ectopic lymphoid tissue neogenesis, systemic autoimmunity, and glomerulonephritis.
Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (cSiO2) has been etiologically linked to human autoimmunity. Intranasal instillation with cSiO2 triggers profuse inflammation in the lung and onset of autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice; however, dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) abrogates these responses. Inflammasome activation, IL-1 cytokine release, and death in alveolar macrophages following cSiO2 exposure are early and critical events that likely contribute to triggering premature autoimmune pathogenesis by this particle. Here we tested the hypothesis that DHA suppresses cSiO2-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1 cytokine release, and cell death in the macrophage. The model used was the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line stably transfected with the inflammasome adapter protein ASC (RAW-ASC). Following priming with LPS, both the canonical activator nigericin and cSiO2 elicited robust inflammasome activation in RAW-ASC cells, as reflected by IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. These responses were greatly diminished or absent in wild-type RAW cells. In contrast to IL-1β, cSiO2 induced IL-1α release in both RAW-ASC and to a lesser extent in RAW-WT cells after LPS priming. cSiO2-driven effects in RAW-ASC cells were confirmed in bone-marrow derived macrophages. Pre-incubating RAW-ASC cells with 10 and 25 μM DHA for 24 h enriched this fatty acid in the phospholipids by 15- and 25-fold, respectively, at the expense of oleic acid. DHA pre-incubation suppressed inflammasome activation and release of IL-1β and IL-1α by nigericin, cSiO2, and two other crystals – monosodium urate and alum. DHA's suppressive effects were linked to inhibition of LPS-induced Nlrp3, Il1b, and Il1a transcription, potentially through the activation of PPARγ. Finally, nigericin-induced death was inflammasome-dependent, indicative of pyroptosis, and could be inhibited by DHA pretreatment. In contrast, cSiO2-induced death was inflammasome-independent and not inhibited by DHA. Taken together, these findings indicate that DHA suppresses cSiO2-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1 cytokine release in macrophages by acting at the level of priming, but was not protective against cSiO2-induced cell death.
Lupus is a debilitating multi-organ autoimmune disease clinically typified by periods of flare and remission. Exposing lupus-prone female NZBWF1 mice to crystalline silica (cSiO 2), a known human autoimmune trigger, mimics flaring by inducing interferon-related gene (IRG) expression, inflammation, ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development, and autoantibody production in the lung that collectively accelerate glomerulonephritis. cSiO 2-triggered flaring in this model can be prevented by supplementing mouse diet with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A limitation of previous studies was the use of purified diet that, although optimized for rodent health, does not reflect the high American intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA), ω-6 PUFAs, and total fat. To address this, we employed here a modified Total Western Diet (mTWD) emulating the 50 th percentile U.S. macronutrient distribution to discern how DHA supplementation and/or SFA and ω-6 reduction influences cSiO 2-triggered lupus flaring in female NZBWF1 mice. Six-week-old mice were fed isocaloric experimental diets for 2 wks, intranasally instilled with cSiO 2 or saline vehicle weekly for 4 wks, and tissues assessed for lupus endpoints 11 wks following cSiO 2 instillation. In mice fed basal mTWD, cSiO 2 induced robust IRG expression, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine elevation, leukocyte infiltration, ELS neogenesis, and autoantibody production in the lung, as well as early kidney nephritis onset compared to vehicle-treated mice fed mTWD. Consumption of mTWD containing DHA at the caloric equivalent to a human dose of 5 g/day dramatically suppressed induction of all lupus-associated endpoints. While decreasing SFA and ω-6 in mTWD modestly inhibited some disease markers, DHA addition to this diet was required for maximal protection against lupus development. Taken together, DHA supplementation at a translationally relevant dose was highly effective in
Workplace exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust (cSiO2) has been etiologically linked to the development of lupus and other human autoimmune diseases. Lupus triggering can be recapitulated in female NZBWF1 mice by four weekly intranasal instillations with 1 mg cSiO2. This elicits inflammatory/autoimmune gene expression and ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development in the lung within 1 week, ultimately driving early onset of systemic autoimmunity and glomerulonephritis. Intriguingly, dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil, beginning 2 week prior to cSiO2 challenge, prevented inflammation and autoimmune flaring in this novel model. However, it is not yet known how ω-3 PUFA intervention influences established autoimmunity in this murine model of toxicant-triggered lupus. Here we tested the hypothesis that DHA intervention after cSiO2-initiated intrapulmonary autoimmunity will suppress lupus progression in the NZBWF1 mouse. Six-week old NZWBF1 female mice were fed purified isocaloric diet for 2 weeks and then intranasally instilled with 1 mg cSiO2 or saline vehicle weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. One week after the final instillation, which marks onset of ELS formation, mice were fed diets supplemented with 0, 4, or 10 g/kg DHA. One cohort of mice (n = 8/group) was terminated 13 weeks after the last cSiO2 instillation and assessed for autoimmune hallmarks. A second cohort of mice (n = 8/group) remained on experimental diets and was monitored for proteinuria and moribund criteria to ascertain progression of glomerulonephritis and survival, respectively. DHA consumption dose-dependently increased ω-3 PUFA content in the plasma, lung, and kidney at the expense of the ω-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Dietary intervention with high but not low DHA after cSiO2 treatment suppressed or delayed: (i) recruitment of T cells and B cells to the lung, (ii) development of pulmonary ELS, (iii) elevation of a wide spectrum of plasma autoantibodies associated with lupus and other autoimmune diseases, (iv) initiation and progression of glomerulonephritis, and (v) onset of the moribund state. Taken together, these preclinical findings suggest that DHA supplementation at a human caloric equivalent of 5 g/d was an effective therapeutic regimen for slowing progression of established autoimmunity triggered by the environmental toxicant cSiO2.
Inhalation of crystalline silica (cSiO 2) in the workplace is etiologically linked to lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Exposing lupus-prone NZBWF1 mice to respirable cSiO 2 unleashes a vicious cycle of inflammation and cell death in the lung that triggers interferon-regulated gene expression, ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development, elevation of local and systemic autoantibodies (AAbs), and glomerulonephritis. However, cSiO 2-induced inflammation and onset of autoimmunity can be prevented by inclusion of the x-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into the diet of these mice. Since cSiO 2 both causes cell death and interferes with efferocytosis, secondary necrosis of residual cell corpses might provide a rich and varied autoantigen (AAg) source in the lung. While it is known that the particle induces anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA AAbs in NZBWF1 mice, the full extent of the cSiO 2-induced AAb response relative to specificity and isotype is not yet understood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that cSiO 2 exposure induces a wide spectrum of AAbs in the pulmonary and systemic compartments, and that dietary DHA intervention prevents these changes. Archived tissue fluid samples were obtained from a prior study in which NZBWF1 mice were fed purified isocaloric diets containing no DHA (control) or DHA corresponding calorically to human doses of 2 and 5 g/day. Mice were intranasally instilled with 1 mg cSiO 2 or saline vehicle weekly for 4 weeks, then groups euthanized 1, 5, 9, or 13 weeks post-instillation (PI) of the last cSiO 2 dose. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma from each time point were subjected to AAb profiling using a microarray containing 122 AAgs. cSiO 2 triggered robust IgG and IgM AAb responses against lupus-associated AAgs, including DNA, histones, ribonucleoprotein, Smith antigen, Ro/SSA, La/SSB, and complement as early as 1 week PI in BALF and 5 weeks PI in plasma, peaking at 9 and 13 weeks PI, respectively. Importantly, cSiO 2 also induced AAbs to AAgs associated with rheumatoid arthritis (collagen II, fibrinogen IV, fibrinogen S, fibronectin, and vimentin), Sj€ ogren's syndrome (a-fodrin), systemic sclerosis (topoisomerase I), vasculitis (MPO and PR3), myositis (Mi-2, TIF1-c, MDA5), autoimmune hepatitis (LC-1), and celiac disease (TTG). cSiO 2 elicited comparable but more modest IgA AAb responses in BALF and plasma. cSiO 2-induced AAb production was strongly associated with time dependent inflammatory/autoimmune gene expression, ELS development, and glomerulonephritis. AAb responses were dose-dependently suppressed by DHA supplementation and negatively correlated with the x-3 index, an erythrocyte biomarker of x-3 content in tissue phospholipids. Taken together, these findings suggest that cSiO 2 exposure elicits a diverse multi-isotype repertoire of AAbs, many of which have been reported in individuals with lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, induction of this broad AAb spectrum could be impeded by increasing x-3 tissue content v...
Occupational exposure to crystalline silica (cSiO2) is etiologically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) and other autoimmune diseases. cSiO2's autoimmune effects in humans can be mimicked chronically in female lupus-prone NZBWF1 mice following repeated exposure to the particle. However, the immediate and short-term effects of cSiO2 in this widely used model of autoimmune disease are not well-understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a single acute cSiO2 dose triggers early presentation of cellular, histopathological, transcriptomic, and protein biomarkers of inflammation and autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice. Eight-week old female NZBWF1 mice were intranasally instilled once with 2.5 mg cSiO2 or saline vehicle and necropsied at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d post-instillation (PI). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue revealed that by 7 d PI, acute cSiO2 exposure persistently provoked: (i) robust recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes into the alveoli, (ii) cell death as reflected by increased protein, double-stranded DNA, and lactate dehydrogenase activity, (iii) elevated secretion of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and B cell activation factor (BAFF), and (iv) upregulation of genes associated with chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte activation, and type I interferon signaling. The appearance of these endpoints was subsequently followed by the emergence in the lung of organized CD3+ T cells (14 d PI) and CD45R+ B cells (21 d PI) that were indicative of ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development. Taken together, acute cSiO2 exposure triggered a rapid onset of autoimmune disease pathogenesis that was heralded in the lung by unresolved inflammation and cell death, proinflammatory cytokine production, chemokine-driven recruitment of leukocytes, an interferon response signature, B and T cell activation, and ELS neogenesis. This short-term murine model provides valuable new insight into potential early mechanisms of cSiO2-induced lupus flaring and, furthermore, offers a rapid venue for evaluating interventions against respirable particle-triggered inflammation and autoimmunity.
Two environmental factors, crystalline silica (cSiO2), a toxic airborne particle encountered occupationally, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA), have the potential to influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). Using the NZBWF1 mouse, which spontaneously develops lupus, we found that intranasal exposure to cSiO2 significantly decreases latency and promotes rapid progression of the disease. Specifically, cSiO2 induces the development of ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) containing germinal centers in the lungs that yield vigorous and diverse autoantibody responses locally and systemically. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that cSiO2 promotes a robust type I interferon gene signature that likely precipitates ELS neogenesis. Intriguingly, dietary supplementation with human-relevant doses of DHA impedes cSiO2-induced gene expression, ELS neogenesis, autoantibody elevation, and glomerulonephritis in this lupus-prone mouse model. Together, our findings point to the feasibility of enhancing tissue omega-3 HUFAs as a personalized nutritional intervention to impede onset and progression of environment-triggered autoimmune disease.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.