Qualidade físico-química e microbiológica da água para o consumo humano e a relação com a saúde: estudo em uma comunidade rural no estado de São PauloMicrobiological and physical-chemical quality of water for human consumption and the relationships with health: study in an agricultural community in state São Paulo Calidad microbiológica y fisicoquímica del agua para consumo humano y sus relaciones con la salud: estudio en una comunidad agrícola en el estado São Paulo aBSTRaCT: In this study we evaluated the relationship between health and environmental sanitation in the context of the process of social development, analyzing the quality of the water for human consumption in Sepé Tiarajú-SP Agricultural Community, which constitutes a project of sustainable development. During the inquiry we identified the presence of pathogenic parasites and coliform bacteria in collected water samples in the points of collective supplying, in the containers of water storage of housings, in the springs and the Serra Azul River range. Parasitological and bacteriological analyzes of collected samples had been carried through in procedures established by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA) and CETESB -Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (Company of Technology for Environmental Sanitation). Results lead us to consider the water used in some communities as a risk factor for the health of human beings that use that it. We believe the development of a work of sanitary education for rural populations, the adoption of preventive measures aiming at the preservation of water sources and the treatment of waters already compromised, allied to techniques of waste treatment, are tools necessary for greatly diminishing the risk of hydric propagation diseases.KeYWoRDS: Environmental sanitation. Quality of water -control of water quality. Health.ReSuMen: En este estudio evaluamos la relación entre la salud y el saneamiento ambiental en el contexto del proceso de desarrollo social, analizando la calidad del agua para consumo humano en la comunidad agrícola Sepé Tiarajú-SP, que constituye un proyecto de desarrollo sostenible. Durante la investigación identificamos la presencia de parásitos patógenos y de bacterias coliformes en muestras de agua recogidas en puntos de abastecimiento colectivo, en los envases de almacenaje del agua de cubiertas, en los resortes y la gama del río Serra Azul. Análisis parasitológicos y bacteriológicos de muestras recogidas han sido ejecutadas según los procedimientos establecidos por Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA) (métodos para el examen del agua y de las aguas residuales) y CETESB -Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental. Los resultados nos llevan a considerar el agua utilizado en algunas comunidades como factor de riesgo para la salud de los seres humanos que la utilizan. Creemos que el desarrollo de un trabajo de educación sanitaria para las poblaciones rurales, la adopción de medidas preventivas que tengan como objetivo la preservación d...
: The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P < 0.05) and a trend of decreasing Cryptosporidium densities, without statistical significance. Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents.
Mixture of metals and herbicides in rivers may pose relevant risks for the health of surrounding communities. Humans may be exposed to river pollution through intake of contaminated water and fish, as well as irrigated agricultural products. The aim of this study was to assess the human health risks of environmental exposure to metals and herbicides through water and fish intake in the Pardo River. Metals (Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Tl, Sn, V, and Zn) were analyzed in river water and in edible fish. Herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone, simazine, and tebuthiuron) were analyzed in river water. Seasonal variances were also studied. Aluminum, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels in river water were higher than the USEPA benchmarks. Non-carcinogenic risks due to pollutants mixture exposure were above the limit, and carcinogenic risks of As exposure were >10 in the sampling points during the rainy season. Metal levels in fish were lower than the Brazilian legislation and do not pose a threat to public health. Herbicides were detected in four sampling points, with atrazine concentrations (range 0.16-0.32 μg/L) below the Brazilian standard (2.0 μg/L), but above the European Union standard (0.1 μg/L). Considering the water supply needs of cities located in the Pardo River Basin and the persistence of metals and herbicides, the present study indicated that there was a seasonal influence on non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, especially in the rainy season. Studies for water treatment plants implantation should consider the risks of exposure to persistent substances, in order to protect the population.
ResumoAs doenças de veiculação hídrica causadas por protozoários oportunistas re-emergiram como relevantes problemas de saúde pública nos últimos anos, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos nos processos de tratamento de água. Nesse marco, Cryptosporidium e Giardia são agentes que apresentam (oo)cistos resistentes ao tratamento convencional de água e se caracterizam por causar sérias morbidades em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. No Brasil, o controle de Cryptosporidium e Giardia em água por técnicas específicas e sensíveis ainda está pouco difundido. O presente estudo visou analisar criticamente as evidências científicas sobre a contaminação da água de abastecimento público por Cryptosporidium e Giardia. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura produzida entre 2001 e 2011 nas bases de dados PUBMED e LILACS. A partir dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se uma distribuição cosmopolita desses parasitas disseminados em diferentes fontes de água tratada, representando um potencial risco para a saúde pública e um desafio para a vigilância ambiental, considerando a especificidade e alto custo das técnicas analíticas reconhecidas internacionalmente para análise desses patógenos em água. Palavras-chave:Cryptosporidium. Giardia. Água Potável. AbstractWater-borne diseases caused by opportunistic protozoa re-emerged as an important public health problem in recent years, despite technological advances in water treatment processes. In this context, agents such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia produce (oo)cysts resistant to conventional water treatment and can cause serious cases of morbidity in immunocompromised individuals. In Brazil, water control by specific and sensitive techniques aimed at detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia still is not widespread. The aim of this study was to do a critical analysis of the scientific evidence on the contamination of public water supplies by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. We did a systematic review of the literature produced from 2001 to 2011 in PUBMED and LILACS databases. From the results, we find a cosmopolitan distribution of these parasites in different sources of treated water, representing a risk to public health and a challenge for environmental monitoring, considering the specificity and high cost of internationally recognized analytical techniques for identifying these pathogens in water. Keywords
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of aluminum (Al) and other metals in water samples from elderly people's houses and retirement homes. Forty-six duplicate water samples from kitchen taps were collected in Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brazil. Metal levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Aluminum concentration exceeded the maximum allowed values in 26% of samples according to the Decree 518/2004 of the Brazilian Health Ministry. It was noted that 11% of elderly living at monitored houses, as well as 19% living at retirement homes presented Alzheimer disease diagnostic. These results suggest taking into account Al risks among vulnerable elderly population groups.
This study's objective was to analyze Brazilian and international scientific evidence on the reasons people store medication at home and the disposal methods used. This systematic literature review includes studies published from 2001 to 2016 and indexed in PubMed, Lilacs and Elsevier's Scopus Database, using the following key words: Disposal of medicines in household, Disposal of drugs expired, Residential expired drugs, Management of expired medications in household. Thirty-three studies were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies reveal that the main reasons people keep a stock of medicines at home include the possibility of future use, leftovers from previous treatments, and self-medication. Inappropriate disposal methods prevail, such as throwing medicines in the household trash or flushing them into the sewer. Some countries have adopted programs to educate on proper storage and disposal of medicines, though only one study describes a national program guiding these practices that is free of charge. Evidence shows there is a need to implement public policies intended to provide guidance on the proper storage and disposal of medicines at home.
This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization.
Latin America, Africa, and Asia present wide dissemination and high prevalence rates of waterborne parasitic diseases, which is a strong indicative of the fragility of public sanitation systems. In this context, parasitological analyses represent extremely relevant instruments. Several parasite diagnosis methods exist, among which Ritchie's method (1948) stands out. This method uses formaldehyde and ether, two reagents of toxicological importance that can cause damages to environmental and occupational health. The present study aimed to compare Ritchie's method modified by Régis Anécimo, without use of solvents, with the traditional Ritchie's method, routinely used for helminth and protozoa diagnosing in Brazil. Some changes were introduced in the modified method, such as controlled increase of water temperature used after stool dilution and substitution of formaldehyde and ether by a neutral detergent before material centrifugation for observation of parasites. In examined samples by both methods, multiple infections were commonly observed; the modified method presented a similar sensitivity to identify the parasites. The development of analytic diagnosis methods that minimize the use of chemical products like ether and formaldehyde represents an important tool to prevent occupational diseases among exposed professionals, as well as to preserve environmental quality through the use of clean techniques.
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