Vaccination is a strategy to the prevention and control of reproductive diseases caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), however the various compositions of commercial vaccines should be evaluated for their ability to induce protection mediated by antibodies. The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of specific neutralizing Abs against BVDV-1 and 2, and BoHV-1 induced by commercial vaccines composed by different adjuvants. Holstein heifers were vaccinated and distributed in three experimental groups: Group I (G1) was vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing inactivated BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BoHV-1 diluted in alum hydroxide as adjuvant (n=9); Group II (G2) was vaccinated with an product containing inactivated strains of BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 diluted in oil emulsion as adjuvant (n=10); Group III (G3) was vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing inactivated BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, besides live modified thermosensitive BoHV-1, diluted in Quil A, amphigen and cholesterol (n=10); A control, non-vaccinated group (n=6) was mock vaccinated with saline. Heifers received two subcutaneous doses of 5mL of each commercial vaccine on the right side of the neck, with 21 days interval. Humoral immune response was assessed by the virus neutralization test (VN) against BVDV-1 (NADL and Singer strains), BVDV-2 (SV253 strain) and BoHV-1 (Los Angeles strain) in serum samples collected on vaccination days zero (D0), 21 (D21) and 42 (D42; 21 days after boosting). Neutralizing Abs against BVDV-1 NADL was detected only in D42, regardless of the vaccine used. Similar geometric mean titers (GMT) for BVDV-1 NADL were observed between G1 (log2=5.1) and G3 (log2=5.1). The seroconversion rate (%) was higher in G1 (78%) when compared to G2 (10%) and G3 (40%). For BVDV-1 Singer, it was also possible to detect Abs production in G1 (log2=5.8, 100% seroconversion rate) and G3 (log2=3.5, seroconversion rate = 60%), only after the booster dose (D42). Neutralizing Abs to BVDV-2 (SV253) were detected only in G3, observing 90% seroconversion associated with high titers of Abs (log2=6.7) after the 2nd dose of vaccine (D42). Heifers from G1 and G3 responded to BoHV-1 after the first dose (D21): G1 (log2=2.5, seroconversion rate = 67%) and G3 (log2=0.7, seroconversion rate = 80%). In D42, a higher magnitude response was observed in the heifers from G3 (log2=6.1, 100%) compared with G1 (log2=4.3, 100%) and G2 (log2=2.7, 60%). Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that the commercial vaccine contained aluminum hydroxide (G1) was most effective in the induction of antibodies against BVDV-1. On the other hand, this vaccine did not induce the production of neutralizing Abs against BVDV-2. Only the heifers from G3 (Quil A, amphigen and cholesterol) generated neutralizing Abs against BVDV-2. The animals that received commercial vaccine containing oil emulsion as adjuvant (G2) had a weak/undetectable response against BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The best protective response against BoHV-1 was observed in heifers vaccinated with the live modified thermosensitive virus.
The present study aimed to investigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the most common diseases during the rearing period of Holstein calves in a high-production dairy farm. The calves (n = 600) were allocated to three groups based on age: G1 (1-7 days, n = 216), G2 (30-40 days, n = 188), and G3 (69-85 days, n = 196). They were evaluated over 60 days at eight different times. The morbidity rates were 47.67% (286/600) for diarrhea, 73.00% (438/600) for bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and 3.83% (23/600) for umbilical inflammation (UI). The mortality rate was 2.33% (14/600) for all the animals studied. The morbidity differed in the groups, with higher rates of diarrhea (78.85%, 166/216) and UI (6.94%, 15/216) in G1, and the highest rate of BRD in G3 (79.59%, 156/196). Diarrhea was associated with the occurrence of BRD in G1 and G2. Even in farms with good management practices, there is high morbidity associated with diarrhea and BRD, with the morbidity rate for diarrhea decreasing and that for BRD increasing as the animals get older. In addition, diarrhea is an important risk factor for BRD, especially in younger animals.
This research communication presents an automatic method for the counting of somatic cells in buffalo milk, which includes the application of a fuzzy clustering method and image processing techniques (somatic cell count with fuzzy clustering and image processing|, SCCFCI). Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is the main biomarker for assessing milk quality and it is traditionally performed by exhaustive methods consisting of the visual observation of cells in milk smears through a microscope, which generates uncertainties associated with human interpretation. Unlike other similar works, the proposed method applies the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) method as a preprocessing step in order to separate the images (objects) of the cells into clusters according to the color intensity. This contributes signficantly to the performance of the subsequent processing steps (thresholding, segmentation and recognition/identification). Two methods of thresholding were evaluated and the Watershed Transform was used for the identification and separation of nearby cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the results showed that the SCCFCI method is able to provide results which are consistent with those obtained by conventional counting. This method therefore represents a viable alternative for quality control in buffalo milk production.
Background: Newborn calves are born immunosuppressed, hypogammaglobulinemic, immunologically immature, and therefore more vulnerable to many infectious diseases. During pregnancy, the fetal-placental environment is regulated by Th2-type cytokines that neutralize Th1 responses, an important factor for immune defense against viral agents. The ingestion and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins enhance the immunity of the neonate. However, the presence of maternal antibodies might negatively affect the success of parental vaccination in the first two months of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effecacy of parenteral vaccination in newborn calves with high titers of maternal antibodies against respiratory viruses.Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty-eight Holstein calves were allocated to the vaccinated group (VAC, n = 18) or an unvaccinated control group (NVAC, n = 10). The initial vaccination with 5 mL of a commercial vaccine occurred around the 14th day of life (D14) and the booster at D35. Respiratory and diarrhea symptoms were evaluated at D12, D14, D16, D20, D31, D36, D45, D53, and D60. Blood samples were taken for leukogram, haptoglobin, and seroneutralization of BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPI3V, at the time of vaccination at D14 (T1), at booster (D35, T2), and 21 days after the booster (D56, T3). Despite the increased prevalence of BRD during the period of the study, no calves from either group exhibited respiratory disease at D12 or D14. In subsequent assessments, the frequency of BRD increased over time in the VAC group until it reached a maximum prevalence of 38.9% (7/18) at D31. In the NVAC group, the maximum prevalence observed was 40% at D45 and D60. A comparison of the frequencies for BRD cases showed a statistical trend at D36 (P = 0.07), with a higher prevalence for the NVAC group (30%) in relation to the VAC group (5.6%). For the NVAC group, a greater number of total leukocytes was observed at T3 (P = 0.038) and granulocytes (trend) at T2 (P = 0.066). Time analysis demonstrated a decrease in haptoglobin concentration in both groups (NVAC, P = 0.005 and VAC, P = 0.006), with a reduction in the values at T1 and T3 (NVAC = 0.005 and VAC = 0.024). Antibody titers were similar between groups for BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV. Higher titers for BPI3V were observed for the VAC group at D56 (P = 0.045).Discussion: The early-onset BRD was present in both groups between 30 and 60 days of age, based on the higher prevalence observed. These data reinforce the importance of early immunization programmes before infection. Factors such as management practices and facilities may have also contributed to the higher prevalence of BRD. The increased number of leukocytes and neutrophils at T2 (D35) and T3 (D56) in the NVAC group points to a stronger inflammatory response to various types of potential challenges. The inflammatory leukocyte profile explains the higher haptoglobin values observed in the NVAC group at T2 (D35). The similarity of titers of antibodies against BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV between groups may indicate that vaccinating the calves at 14 days of age did not induce a humoral immune response to these viruses, likely due to interference from the maternal antibodies. Early vaccination prevented a drop in specific viral antibodies and promoted partial protection for vaccinated calves around 14 days of age, with a decrease in the intensity of the inflammatory response at the peak of the disease and a higher concentration of antibodies against BPI3V after the booster.
The early use of antimicrobial therapy has been introduced in many farms to prevent diarrhea and respiratory disease in young calves; however, there is controversy about whether this practice has a beneficial effect on the health of these animals. This study evaluated the influence of the early use of antimicrobials on the health and performance of neonatal Holstein calves. Twenty-six Holstein calves were screened and divided into two groups, according to the administration (ATB+), or not (ATB-) of tulathromycin (2.5mg/kg, subcutaneously) within the first 12 hours of life. Calves were evaluated by general clinical examination, fecal score, respiratory score, and external palpation of the umbilical region, besides fecal output of dry matter. Anemia was determined by using an automatic system and, also, using a commercial kit for iron dosage. Diarrhea was diagnosed by a centrifuge-flotation technique using a sugar solution (Cryptosporidium) and multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavirus/coronavirus). The performance of the calves was estimated by Daily Weight Gain (DWG). The young dairy calves were evaluated within 12 hours of birth (≤12h) and at 3-5th (D3-5), 7-9th (D7-9), 13-15th (D13-15), 20-23rd (D20-23), and 27-30th (D27-30) days of life. No difference was noted between the ATB+ and ATB- groups concerning heart rate, respiratory frequency, and rectal temperature. Erythrogram showed a higher frequency of anemia in ATB- group (P=0.016) at the D3-5 check-up; lower values of serum iron were also observed simultaneously (P=0.051). Thirteen cases of respiratory disease were detected during this study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups in this regard. The frequency of diarrhea (fecal score 2-3) was high in both groups, peaking at D13-D15. No differences were noted between the groups regarding the frequency of diarrhea when considering the dry fecal matter. The predominant etiological agent for diarrhea was Cryptosporidium spp.. The DWG was similar between groups, with maximum weight reduction on D13-15. The administration of tulathromycin in prophylactic dose (2.5mg/kg) at birth decreased the frequency of anemia but did not influence weight gain or the prevalence of diarrhea.
We evaluated some indicators of innate and humoral immune response in persistently infected (PI) Holstein calves and cows from 1 to 36 months of age matched with controls from the same herd. The effects were cataloged by grouping animals into the following age groups: <12 months, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months of age. Blood samples were collected once from each animal to measure total serum protein, haptoglobin, and neutralizing antibodies titers induced by respiratory virus vaccination. Total serum protein (g/dL) was lowest in PI calves younger until 24 months old, while haptoglobin concentration was higher in PI cattle. The serum neutralizing titers against BVDV and BRSV were lower in all PI calves and cattle than in controls. PI cattle have a high serum concentration of haptoglobin, and its possible dysregulated innate immune response appears to impact the efficacy of their adaptative immune responses, resulting in poor vaccine responsiveness.
of polyphenol desinfectant use for reduce Cryptosporidium spp. infection in holstein calves with diarrhea.
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