This research aims to test the effects of cassia leaf extract on the eating behavior of pigeons for application as a natural repellent. Senna siamea (Cassia) leaves were oven-dried and blended into fine pieces and processed by the simplest extraction method (maceration) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution and were then extracted with hot continuous extraction (Soxhlet extraction) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution. Cereal grain seeds were prepared and soaked in the extracts of the 2 methods in 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% concentrations for 24 h. Twenty-four pigeons were prepared with one cage per pigeon. Cereal grains were weighed to 20 grams, which was fed to the pigeons for 24 h and the beginning weight of the cereal grains and the weight of the leftovers were recorded. The food consumption was analyzed to determine the differences among the averages of each method with one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that the averages of the bird food intake based on the maceration method were not different with a statistical significance (p>0.05), while the averages of the bird food intake based on Soxhlet extraction were different with a statistical significance (p<0.05). The bird food processed by the Soxhlet extraction method had a lower average consumption than that of the maceration method.
We illustrate compare the time-independent correlation function the theoretical(numerical shooting technique[?],[?] see figure (6) to figure (5)) and the intensity correlation experiment by reference. We show that the intensity of atomic density fluctuation(δη(x) =η(x)− ϑ(x)) in harmonics oscillator modify Gaussian-Cosine rational asymmetric potential by numerical shooting method(see figure (6)).
We monitored total testosterone profiles and song patterns of 12 males and 2 females Red-whiskered Bulbuls (Pycnonotus jocosus), aged 5-10 months. Each bird was maintained in a cage sized of 38 × 38 × 50 cm and raised in a 22 °C-controlled room-sized of 6 × 10 × 3.5 m. The song prototype was played during 0700-11.00 h, with an amplifier-connected loudspeaker placed at the center and the song was recorded during both 1100-1200 and 1300-1500 h, and then their sonograms were analyzed with Avisoft SAS Lab Pro, version 4.3. Feces were collected monthly and immediately following recording their songs to determine male and female total testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. The results demonstrated that an average of a frequency that the male and the female birds produced was 4.27 ± 0.13 kHz with a frequency range of 1.50 - 5.18 kHz. The males aged 8-10 months old produced songs with an average of 25.83 syllables/10 s, similar to those found in the song prototype while the females produced those with an average of 18.33 syllables/10 s. The males produced songs consisting of more syllables and fewer intervals than those of the females. The coefficient of correlations between the mean total testosterone levels with the syllables/10 s and intervals/10 s were +0.68 and -0.69, respectively. Additionally, the male Red-whiskered Bulbuls created the complicated and various song types that corresponded well with the marked increases in the total testosterone levels at the age of 8 to 10 months old.
In this paper, we develop a mathematical and physics model or formula of displacement-time dependent, velocity-time dependent, acceleration-time dependent, kinetic energy-time dependent and mechanical power-time dependent for Usain Bolt in the 100 m sprint at Beijing olympic games 2008. We use data of distance, velocity, time for Usain Bolt from Mackata Krzysztof and Antti Mero analysis kinematic parameter of Usain Bolt to compare the mathematical and physics model. The mathematical and physics model corresponding velocity, and acceleration as shown in the book entitled Introduction to sport biomechanics of Roger Bartlett(pp.83-92).
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