This study was undertaken to investigate stem cells in adult mouse ovary, the effect of chemotherapy on them and their potential to differentiate into germ cells. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that were SCA-1þ/LinÀ/CD45À, positive for nuclear octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (OCT-4), Nanog, and cell surface stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, were identified in adult mouse ovary. Chemotherapy resulted in complete loss of follicular reserve and cytoplasmic OCT-4 positive progenitors (ovarian germ stem cells) but VSELs survived. In ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell cultures from chemoablated ovary, proliferating germ cell clusters and mouse vasa homolog/growth differentiation factor 9-positive oocyte-like structure were observed by day 6, probably arising as a result of differentiation of the surviving VSELs. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exerted a direct stimulatory action on the OSE and induced stem cells proliferation and differentiation into premeiotic germ cell clusters during intact chemoablated ovaries culture. The FSH analog pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment to chemoablated mice increased the percentage of surviving VSELs in ovary. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of potential VSELs in mouse ovaries and show that they survive chemotherapy, are modulated by FSH, and retain the ability to undergo oocyte-specific differentiation. These results show relevance to women who undergo premature ovarian failure because of oncotherapy.
Being quiescent, VSELs possibly do not accumulate genomic (nuclear or mitochondrial) mutations and thus may be ideal endogenous, pluripotent stem cell candidates for regenerative and reproductive medicine. The presence of VSELs in adult gonads and the fact that they survive oncotherapy may obviate the need to bank gonadal tissue for fertility preservation prior to oncotherapy. VSELs and their ability to undergo spermatogenesis/neo-oogenesis in the presence of a healthy niche will help identify newer strategies toward fertility restoration in cancer survivors, delaying menopause and also enabling aged mothers to have better quality eggs.
BackgroundFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH) exerts action on both germline and somatic compartment in both ovary and testis although FSH receptors (FSHR) are localized only on the somatic cells namely granulosa cells of growing follicles and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. High levels of FSH in females are associated with poor ovarian reserve, ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome etc. and at the same time FSH acts as a survival factor during in vitro organotypic culture of ovarian cortical strips. Thus a further understanding of FSH action on the ovary is essential. We have earlier reported presence of pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs express Oct-4A in addition to other pluripotent markers) and their immediate descendants ‘progenitors’ ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs express Oct-4B in addition to other germ cell markers) in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in various mammalian species including mice, rabbit, monkey, sheep and human. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on adult mice ovaries with a focus on VSELs, OGSCs, postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly.MethodsOvaries were collected from adult mice during different stages of estrus cycle and after 2 and 7 days of PMSG (5 IU) treatment to study histo-architecture and expression for FSHR, pluripotent stem cells , meiosis and germ cell specific markers.ResultsPMSG treatment resulted in increased FSHR and proliferation as indicated by increased FSHR and PCNA immunostaining in OSE and oocytes of primordial follicles (PF) besides the granulosa cells of large antral follicles. Small 1–2 regions of multilayered OSE invariably associated with a cohort of PF during estrus stage in control ovary were increased to 5–8 regions after PMSG treatment. This was associated with an increase in pluripotent transcripts (Oct-4A, Nanog), meiosis (Scp-3) and germ cells (Oct-4B, Mvh) specific markers. MVH showed positive immuno staining on germ cell nest-like clusters and at places primordial follicles appeared connected through oocytes.ConclusionsThe results of the present study show that gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment to adult mouse leads to increased pluripotent stem cell activity in the ovaries, associated with increased meiosis, appearance of several cohorts of PF and their assembly in close proximity of OSE. This was found associated with the presence of germ cell nests and cytoplasmic continuity of oocytes in PF. We have earlier reported that pluripotent ovarian stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary are the VSELs which give rise to slightly differentiated OGSCs. Thus we propose that gonadotropin through its action on pluripotent VSELs augments neo-oogenesis and PF assembly in adult mouse ovaries.
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) exist among spermatogonial stem cells and survive chemotherapy in both mice and human testes because of their relatively quiescent nature. Our earlier study revealed that inter-tubular transplantation of niche (Sertoli or bone marrow derived mesenchymal) cells can restore spermatogenesis from endogenous surviving VSELs. Present study was undertaken to delineate the effect of busulphan on testicular stem/germ/Sertoli cells and to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of how transplanted niche cells restore spermatogenesis. Ploidy analysis showed an increase in diploid cells on D7 and VSELs (2-6 μm; LIN-/CD45-/SCA-1+) were detected at all time-points studied and were maximum on D15 after busulphan treatment. They were visualized in cell smears, expressed nuclear NANOG and SOX2 and BrdU uptake on D15 suggested they were proliferating in response to stress induced by busulphan. Verapamil-sensitive side population detected comprised SCA-1 positive stem cells (5 ± 0.02 % in normal and 8.6 ± 2.02 % in chemoablated testis). Adverse effects of busulphan on Sertoli cells by transcriptome analysis included altered expression of Gdnf, Scf, Fgf, Bmp4, androgen binding protein, components of blood-testis-barrier and also stem cells related signaling pathways including Wnt. GFP positive transplanted cells aligned themselves as 'neo-tubules' and were visualized adjacent to 'native' germ cells depleted tubules. 'Neo-tubules' provide paracrine support to endogenous VSELs to undergo spermatogenesis. Quantitative analysis was done to track proliferation (PCNA) and differentiation (MVH) of stem cells by immuno-localization studies at different time intervals. Results provide an alternative strategy to restore spermatogenesis in cancer survivors from endogenous stem cells which needs to be further researched.
The spontaneous return of fertility after bone marrow transplantation or heterotopic grafting of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue has surprised many, and a possible link with stem cells has been proposed. We have reviewed the available literature on ovarian stem cells in adult mammalian ovaries and presented a model that proposes that the ovary harbors two distinct populations of stem cells, namely, pluripotent, quiescent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), and slightly larger “progenitor” ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). Besides compromising the somatic niche, oncotherapy destroys OGSCs since, like tumor cells, they are actively dividing; however VSELs persist since they are relatively quiescent. BMT or transplanted ovarian cortical tissue may help rejuvenate the ovarian niche, which possibly supports differentiation of persisting VSELs resulting in neo-oogenesis and follicular development responsible for successful pregnancies. Postnatal oogenesis in mammalian ovary from VSELs may be exploited for fertility restoration in cancer survivors including those who were earlier deprived of gametes and/or gonadal tissue cryopreservation options.
Female mammals are born with a fixed pool of germ cells, which does not replenish during adult life. However, this has been recently challenged and adult ovaries produce oocytes throughout adult life just like sperm in the testes. Evidence is accumulating on the presence of ovarian stem cells, but the need for robust protocols to isolate, identify, further characterize, and subject them to various functionality tests is essential. Knowledge about the function and potential of ovarian stem cells is well demonstrated by various groups, but their true identity remains elusive because of the variability in the approaches used to identify them by different groups. In order to address this we have made attempts to compile our protocols to isolate, identify, characterize, and culture the stem cells using different animal models including human. Two distinct populations of stem cells exist in adult mammalian ovary, including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the progenitors termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). VSELs are relatively quiescent and undergo asymmetric cell division to give rise to OGSCs, which divide rapidly, occasionally form germ cell nests and undergo meiosis and differentiation into oocytes, which are surrounded by granulosa cells to assemble as primordial follicles.
Infectious respiratory particles expelled by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients are attributed to be the key driver of COVID-19 transmission. Understanding how and by whom the virus is transmitted can help implement better disease control strategies. Here we have described the use of a noninvasive mask sampling method to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory particles expelled by COVID-19 patients and discussed its relationship to transmission risk. Respiratory particles of 31 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and 31 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were captured on N-95 masks layered with a gelatin membrane in a 30-minute process that involved talking/reading, coughing, and tidal breathing. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected and quantified using rRT-PCR in the mask and in concomitantly collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. The data were analyzed with respect to patient demographics and clinical presentation. Thirteen of 31(41.9%) patients showed SARS-COV-2 positivity in both the mask and NPS samples, while 16 patients were mask negative but NPS positive. Two patients were both mask and NPS negative. All healthy volunteers except one were mask and NPS negative. The mask positive patients had significantly lower NPS Ct value (26) compared to mask negative patients (30.5) and were more likely to be rapid antigen test positive. The mask positive patients could be further grouped into low emitters (expelling <100 viral copies) and high emitters (expelling >1000 viral copies). The study presents evidence for variation in emission of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles by COVID-19 patients reflecting differences in infectivity and transmission risk among individuals. The results conform to reported secondary infection rates and transmission and also suggest that mask sampling could be explored as an effective tool to assess individual transmission risks, at different time points and during different activities.
BackgroundLei and Spradling in a recent study published in PNAS failed to detect ‘germline cysts’ by elegant studies using lineage tracing approach and thus concluded that adult mouse ovaries lack stem cells. They proposed that primordial follicle pool generated during fetal life is sufficient to sustain oogenesis and that there is no renewal of oocytes during adult life. Contrary to their results, we have reported presence of very small pluripotent, embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), their immediate descendants (OGSCs) and germ cell ‘cysts’ or ‘nests’ (formed by rapid cell division and incomplete cytokinesis) in surface epithelial cell smears of adult sheep, monkey and human ovaries.MethodsIn the present study, ovaries were collected from adult mouse (treated with 5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, PMSG) and sheep (from slaughter house) and testis from mouse treated with busulphan (25 mg/Kg). Ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and testicular smears were studied for the presence of cysts. Sheep OSE smears were also used to show cytoplasmic continuity amongst the cyst cells studied by immunolocalization and confocal microscopy of stem cells specific markers OCT-4 and SSEA-4.ResultsCysts were observed and confocal microscopy imaging confirmed cytoplasmic continuity amongst the cells comprising the cysts.ConclusionsCysts represent self-renewal and clonal expansion of stem cells with incomplete cytokinesis and are a hallmark feature of stem cells. We suggest the use of PMSG stimulated mouse ovaries and use of more primitive markers like OCT-4 or STELLA rather than MVH for lineage tracing studies to conclusively show presence of stem cells by lineage-tracing studies.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers