Soliton switching in nonlinear directional couplers implemented in photonic crystal fibers (PCF) examined here. A vector finite element method (FEM) has been developed to precisely calculate the dispersion along with coupling length of the guided modes. The PCF coupler geometry was carefully designed so that it can support soliton pulses. Soliton switching is demonstrated numerically at 1.55 microm for 100 femto-second (fs) pulses. Our theoretical results explain some of the key spectral features previously observed in the experiment.
Following a rise in population, load demand is increasing even in the remote areas and islands of Bangladesh. Being an island that is also far from the mainland of Bangladesh, St. Martin’s is in need of electricity. As it has ample renewable energy resources, a renewable energy-based microgrid system seems to be the ultimate solution, considering the ever-increasing price of diesel fuel. This study proposes a microgrid system and tests its technical and economic feasibility in that area. All possible configurations have been simulated to try and find the optimal system for the island, which would be eco-friendly and economical with and without considering renewable energy options. The existing power supply configuration has also been compared to the best system after analyzing and investigating all technical and economic feasibility. Sensitivity and risk analysis between different cases provide added value to this study. The results show that the current diesel-based system is not viable for the island’s people, but rather a heavy burden to them due to the high cost of per unit electricity and the net present cost. In contrast, a PV /Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid microgrid appeared to be the most feasible system. The proposed system is found to be around 1.5 times and 28% inexpensive considering the net present cost and cost of energy, respectively, with a high (56%) share of renewable energy which reduces 23% carbon dioxide.
This paper studies the perturbation of the improved version of the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation that governs the propagation of solitons through nonlinear optical fibers. The semi-inverse variational principle is employed in order to obtain an analytical soliton solution in presence of the perturbation terms. There are three types of nonlinearity that will be studied. They are Kerr law, power law and the log law. The constraint conditions will naturally fall out in order for the soliton solutions to exist. The numerical simulations supplement the analytical results for each of the three laws of nonlinearity.
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