Accurate health estimation and lifetime prediction of lithium-ion batteries are crucial for durable electric vehicles. Early detection of inadequate performance facilitates timely maintenance of battery systems. This reduces operational costs and prevents accidents and malfunctions. Recent advancements in "Big Data" analytics and related statistical/computational tools raised interest in data-driven battery health estimation.Here, we will review these in view of their feasibility and cost-effectiveness in dealing with battery health in real-world applications. We categorise these methods according to their underlying models/algorithms and discuss their advantages and limitations. In the final section we focus on challenges of real-time battery health management and discuss potential next-generation techniques. We are confident that this review will inform commercial technology choices and academic research agendas alike, thus boosting progress in datadriven battery health estimation and prediction on all technology readiness levels.
Predicting future capacities and remaining useful life (RUL) with uncertainty quantification is a key but challenging issue in the applications of battery health diagnosis and management. This paper applies advanced machine-learning techniques to achieve effective future capacities and RUL prediction for lithium-ion batteries with reliable uncertainty management. To be specific, after using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method, the original battery capacity data is decomposed into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. Then the long short term memory (LSTM) sub-model is applied to estimate the residual while the gaussian process regression (GPR) sub-model is utilized to fit the IMFs with the uncertainty level. Consequently, both the long-term dependence of capacity and uncertainty quantification caused by the capacity regenerations can be captured directly and simultaneously. Experimental aging data from different batteries are deployed to evaluate the performance of proposed LSTM+GPR model in comparison with the solo GPR, solo LSTM, GPR+EMD and LSTM+EMD models. Illustrative results demonstrate the combined LSTM+GPR model outperforms other counterparts and is capable of achieving accurate results for both 1-step and multi-step ahead capacity predictions. Even predicting the RUL at the early battery cycle stage, the proposed data-driven approach still presents good adaptability and reliable uncertainty quantification for battery health diagnosis.
p53, circRNAs and miRNAs are important components of the regulatory network that activates the EMT program in cancer metastasis. In prostate cancer (PCa), however, it has not been investigated whether and how p53 regulates EMT by circRNAs and miRNAs. Here we show that a Amotl1-derived circRNA, termed circAMOTL1L, is downregulated in human PCa, and that decreased circAMOTL1L facilitates PCa cell migration and invasion through downregulating E-cadherin and upregulating vimentin, thus leading to EMT and PCa progression. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that circAMOTL1L serves as a sponge for binding miR-193a-5p in PCa cells, relieving miR-193a-5p repression of
gene cluster (a subset of the cadherin superfamily members). Accordingly, dysregulation of the circAMOTL1L-miR-193a-5p-Pcdha8 regulatory pathway mediated by circAMOTL1L downregulation contributes to PCa growth in vivo. Further, we show that RBM25 binds directly to circAMOTL1L and induces its biogenesis, whereas p53 regulates EMT via direct activation of
gene. These findings have linked p53/RBM25-mediated circAMOTL1L-miR-193a-5p-Pcdha regulatory axis to EMT in metastatic progression of PCa. Targeting this newly identified regulatory axis provides a potential therapeutic strategy for aggressive PCa.
Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.
Battery calendar aging prediction is of extreme importance for developing durable electric vehicles. This paper derives machine learning-enabled calendar aging prediction for lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the Gaussian process regression (GPR) technique is employed to capture the underlying mapping among capacity, storage temperature, and SOC. By modifying the isotropic kernel function with an automatic relevance determination (ARD) structure, high relevant input features can be effectively extracted to improve prediction accuracy and robustness. Experimental battery calendar aging data from nine storage cases are utilized for model training, validation, and comparison, which is more meaningful and practical than using the data from a single condition. Illustrative results demonstrate that the proposed GPR model with ARD Matern32 (M32) kernel outperforms other counterparts and can achieve reliable prediction results for all storage cases. Even for the partial-data training test, multi-step prediction test and accelerated aging training test, the proposed ARDbased GPR model is still capable of excavating the useful features, therefore offering good generalization ability and accurate prediction results for calendar aging under various storage conditions. This is the first known data-driven application that utilizes the GPR with ARD kernel to perform battery calendar aging prognosis.Index Terms-Lithium-ion batteries, calendar aging prediction, battery health, Gaussian process regression, datadriven model.
This paper applies advanced battery modeling and multi-objective constrained nonlinear optimization techniques to derive suitable charging patterns for lithiumion batteries. Three important yet competing charging objectives, including battery health, charging time, and energy conversion efficiency, are taken into account simultaneously. These optimization objectives are first subject to a high-fidelity battery model that is synthesized from recently developed individual electrical, thermal, and aging models. The coupling relationship and multiple timescales among different model dynamics are identified. Furthermore, constraints are considered explicitly on the current, voltage, state-of-charge, and temperature. Such a complex charging problem is solved by using an ensemble multiobjective biogeography-based optimization (EM-BBO) approach. As a result, two charging patterns, namely the constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) and multistage constant current-constant voltage (MCC-CV), are optimized to balance various combinations of charging objectives. Different trade-offs and sensitive elements are compared and analyzed based on the Pareto frontiers. Illustrative results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can effectively offer feasible health-conscious charging with desirable trade-offs among charging speed and energy conversion efficiency under different demand priorities.
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