This preliminary study of four elbow specimens investigates the relationship of articular geometry and ligamentous structures in providing stability to the elbow joint. A technique is presented that describes the constraining features of varus-valgus and distraction in extension and at 90 degree of elbow flexion. Valgus stability is equally divided among the medial collateral ligament, anterior capsule, and bony articulation in full extension; whereas, at 90 degrees of flexion the contribution of the anterior capsule is assumed by the medial collateral ligament which provides approximately 55% of the stabilizing contribution to valgus stress. Varus stress is noted to be resisted primarily by the anterior capsule (32%) and the joint articulation (55%) with only a small (14%) contribution from the radial collateral ligament. At 90 degrees of flexion, little change is noted in the contribution to the radial collateral ligament (9%), but the anterior capsule offers only 13%, with the remaining stability (75%) arising from the joint articulation. In extension, the soft tissue resistance to distraction is provided minimally by either the radial (5%) or the medial (5%) collateral ligaments, and thus primarily originates from the anterior capsule (85%). At 90 degrees of flexion, however, the capsule offers virtually no resistance to distraction (8%). The radial collateral ligament contributes 10% of the stability, while the medial collateral ligament accounts for 78% of the resistance to distraction in this position. Too few specimens have been studied to form any conclusions for direct clinical applications at this time. However, the technique provides a reliable tool with additional studies for different positions and loading conditions underway. These efforts should disclose useful information that might be applied to the management of chronic elbow instability, radial head or olecranon fracture, the design and implantation of elbow prostheses, or provide a rationale for other reconstructive procedures.
a b s t r a c tRecent studies indicated that high-entropy alloys (HEAs) possess unusual structural and thermal features, which could greatly affect dislocation motion and contribute to the mechanical performance, however, a HEA matrix alone is insufficiently strong for engineering applications and other strengthening mechanisms are urgently needed to be incorporated. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility to precipitate nanosized coherent reinforcing phase, i.e., L1 2 -Ni 3 (Ti,Al), in a fcc-FeCoNiCr HEA matrix using minor additions of Ti and Al. Through thermomechanical processing and microstructure controlling, extraordinary balanced tensile properties at room temperature were achieved, which is due to a well combination of various hardening mechanisms, particularly precipitation hardening. The applicability and validity of the conventional strengthening theories are also discussed. The current work is a successful demonstration of using integrated strengthening approaches to manipulate the properties of fcc-HEA systems, and the resulting findings are important not only for understanding the strengthening mechanisms of metallic materials in general, but also for the future development of high-performance HEAs for industrial applications.
Skeletal muscle is a very dynamic tissue, thus accurate quantification of
skeletal muscle stiffness throughout its functional range is crucial to improve
the physical functioning and independence following pathology. Shear wave
elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound-based technique that characterizes tissue
mechanical properties based on the propagation of remotely induced shear waves.
The objective of this study is to validate SWE throughout the functional range
of motion of skeletal muscle for three ultrasound transducer orientations. We
hypothesized that combining traditional materials testing (MTS) techniques with
SWE measurements will show increased stiffness measures with increasing tensile
load, and will correlate well with each other for trials in which the transducer
is parallel to underlying muscle fibers. To evaluate this hypothesis, we
monitored the deformation throughout tensile loading of four porcine brachialis
whole-muscle tissue specimens, while simultaneously making SWE measurements of
the same specimen. We used regression to examine the correlation between
Young's modulus from MTS and shear modulus from SWE for each of the
transducer orientations. We applied a generalized linear model to account for
repeated testing. Model parameters were estimated via generalized estimating
equations. The regression coefficient was 0.1944, with a 95% confidence
interval of (0.1463 – 0.2425) for parallel transducer trials. Shear
waves did not propagate well for both the 45° and perpendicular
transducer orientations. Both parallel SWE and MTS showed increased stiffness
with increasing tensile load. This study provides the necessary first step for
additional studies that can evaluate the distribution of stiffness throughout
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