Flax seed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). Feeding broiler birds flax seed can increase n-3 fatty acids in meat tissues. However, non-starch polysaccharides in flax seed decrease nutrient digestibility and can have a negative impact on bird performance and muscle fatty acid content. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flax-based broiler diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of non-starch polysaccharides. An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effect of flax seed and carbohydrase enzyme foregut morphology, muscle tissue, fatty acids, and bird performance. A total of 112 five-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four treatments: Flax10 (corn-soybean meal basal diet adjusted for 10% flax), Flax15 (basal diet adjusted for 15% flax), Flax10E (Flax10 + 0.05% enzyme), and Flax15E (Flax 15 + 0.05% enzyme). Addition of enzyme led to large increases in villi height and villi width in the jejunum of birds fed Flax10 and increases in crypt depth in the jejunum of birds fed Flax15 (P < 0.05). The ratio of villi height to crypt depth was larger in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed Flax10E when compared to Flax10 (P < 0.05). Feeding the Flax15 diet led to a significant decrease in total lipids in breast muscle compared to Flax10 (P < 0.05). The effect of level of flax or enzyme supplementation was minimal on the fatty acids measured in breast muscle except for total n-6 fatty acids which was higher (P < 0.05) in Flax15 when compared to Flax10. In thigh muscle, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, and total n-6 fatty acids were higher in birds fed Flax15 vs. Flax10. Feeding Flax15 led to a reduction in dry matter of excreta when compared to Flax10 (P < 0.05). There were no differences in BW, average daily gain, or feed consumption during the starter or grower phase due to flax level or enzyme addition (P > 0.05).
Abstract:The laying hen (Gallus domesticus) is a robust animal model for epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of animal models is critical in identifying early disease markers and developing and testing chemotherapies. We describe the microscopic characteristics of the normally functioning laying hen ovary and proximal oviduct to establish baselines from which lesions associated with ovarian cancer can be more readily identified. Ovaries and oviducts were collected from 18-month-old laying hens (n = 18) and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Hematoxylin-and eosin-stained sections were examined by light microscopy. Both post-ovulatory follicular regression and atresia of small follicles produce remnant clusters of vacuolated cells with no histological evidence that scar tissue persists. Infiltrates of heterophils are associated with atresia of small follicles, a relationship not previously documented in laying hen ovaries. Because these tissues can be mistaken for cancerous lesions, we present a detailed histological description of remnant Wolffian tissues in the laying hen ovary. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin produced a positive response in ovarian surface epithelium and staining for vimentin produced a positive response in granulosa cells of follicles. Epithelial cells lining glands of the remnant epoöphoron had a positive response to both pancytokeratin and vimentin, a result also observed in women.
Intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins is critical for health and survival of newborn calves because there is no transfer of immunoglobulins in utero. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa hay during the last trimester of gestation improves passive transfer of ovalbumin (OVA), a surrogate protein marker for IgG absorption. Control cows (n = 15) were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay (5.3 mg Se/head daily) plus a mineral supplement containing inorganic Se (3 mg Se/head daily). Med-Se (n = 15) and High-Se cows (n = 15) were fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay (27.6 and 57.5 mg Se/head daily, respectively); both groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Calves were randomly assigned to receive orally administered OVA at 12, 24, or 36 h of age. Calves that received their oral dose of OVA at 12 h of age had higher serum OVA concentrations across the first 48 h of life if born to High-Se cows compared to calves born to Control cows (P = 0.05), with intermediate values for calves born to Med-Se cows. Our results, using OVA as a model for passive transfer, suggest that if calves do not receive adequate colostrum to reach maximum pinocytosis, then supranutritional Se supplementation in beef cattle may improve passive transfer in their calves, if calves receive colostrum within the first 12 h of age.
BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. Identifying early gene indicators contributing to the onset and progression of NAFLD has the potential to develop novel targets for early therapeutic intervention. We report on the early and late transcriptomic signatures of western diet (WD)-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in female and male Ldlr−/− mice, with time-points at 1 week and 40 weeks on the WD. Control Ldlr−/− mice were maintained on a low-fat diet (LFD) for 1 and 40 weeks.MethodsThe approach included quantitation of anthropometric and hepatic histology markers of disease as well as the hepatic transcriptome.ResultsOnly mice fed the WD for 40 weeks revealed evidence of NASH, i.e., hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. RNASeq transcriptome analysis, however, revealed multiple cell-specific changes in gene expression after 1 week that persisted to 40 weeks on the WD. These early markers of disease include induction of acute phase response (Saa1-2, Orm2), fibrosis (Col1A1, Col1A2, TGFβ) and NASH associated macrophage (NAM, i.e., Trem2 high, Mmp12 low). We also noted the induction of transcripts associated with metabolic syndrome, including Mmp12, Trem2, Gpnmb, Lgals3 and Lpl. Finally, 1 week of WD feeding was sufficient to significantly induce TNFα, a cytokine involved in both hepatic and systemic inflammation.ConclusionThis study revealed early onset changes in the hepatic transcriptome that develop well before any anthropometric or histological evidence of NALFD or NASH and pointed to cell-specific targeting for the prevention of disease progression.
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