RESUMO -Modificações na expressão gênica foram observadas nos sistemas esterase, leucina aminopeptidase e x-glicerofosfato desidrogenase, durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético de Anopheles albitarsis. A esterase revelou quatro regiões de atividade, sendo a esterase 1 detectada apenas em larvas de 4º estádio velhas e em pupas, as esterases 2 e 4 foram presentes durante todo o desenvolvimento, e a esterase 3 revelou-se praticamente apenas em larvas e raríssimas vezes em pupas. Também foram observadas quatro regiões de atividade na leucina am presente somente em pupas e adultos e a LAP4 foi detectada nos três diferentes estágios. Uma única região foi observada para a x-glicerofosfato desidrogenase e a intensidade de sua atividade cresce à medida que se aproxima o estágio adulto.
Palavras-chave:Anopheles albitarsis, isoenzimas, ontogenia, malária, Amazônia.
Ontogenetic Patterns of Esterases, Leucine Aminopeptidase and x-Glycerophosphate DehydrogenABSTRACT -Modifications in genetic expression were observed in the esterase, leucine albitarsis. The esterase revealed four regions of activity. Esterase 1 was detected in 4th stage larvae and in
Four populations of Aedes aegypti from Manaus were studied, using allozymes and RAPD loci, to determine intra-and interpopulation genetic variability and differentiation and to compare genetic structure parameters assessed with both markers. Five RAPD primers produced 52 polymorphic fragments, whereas only seven of 18 isozyme loci were polymorphic. The population from Praça 14 was the most polymorphic (P= 94.23% and P= 55.6%); while those from Coroado (P= 82.69% and P= 44.40%) and from Cidade Nova (P= 84.61% and P= 44.40%) were the least polymorphic, for both RAPD and isozymes respectively. The observed heterozygosity was higher between populations (Ho= 0.33-0.38) as assessed by RAPD. Wright's F statistics showed an F is value higher than F st (F is = 0.164 > F st = 0.048). AMOVA indicated that 95.12% of the genetic variability is intrapopulational. Even so, both of the genetic markers evaluated showed a relatively high gene flow ((N m = 15.15), and possibly are still random couplings, although the F is value was not low. The genetic distance between populations was similarly low for both markers: RAPD (0.012-0.016) and Isozymes (0.003-0.016). These results show that as assessed by both markers, the populations are genetically similar, and that isozymes (codominant) are the most efficient to detect the population genetic structure. Although isozymes revealed less genetic diversity than RAPDs, the estimated levels of genetic distance were identical.
Eighteen enzymatic loci were analysed in Aedes aegypti populations from four neighbourhoods in the city of Manaus. The analyses showed that the Downtown population was the most polymorphic (p = 55.6%) with higher observed and expected mean heterozygosities (H o = 0.152 ± 0.052; H e = 0.174 ± 0.052, respectively). The least variability was detected in the Coroado and Cidade Nova populations, both with polymorphism of 44.4%. The latter population presented the least observed heterozygosity (H o = 0.109 ± 0.037). Wright's F statistics showed that the mean value of F is was higher than that of F st (F is = 0.164 > F st = 0.048), and from analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) it was found that 95.12% of the variability is found within populations indicating a certain intra-population differentiation possibly of the microgeographic structure resulting from some barrier in the random coupling. Although the four populations were similar genetically (D = 0.003 to 0.016), the 4.88% differentiation was significant.
Populations of Anopheles triannulatus from Macapá (AP), Aripuanã (MT), Ji-Paraná (RO), and Manaus-Janauari Lake (AM) were studied using 16 enzymatic loci. The results of the isozyme analysis showed that the population of Macapá presented higher polymorphism (56.3%). The lowest variability was observed in the population of Manaus (p = 25.0; Ho = 0.077 +/- 0.046). The results of Wright's F statistics showed unbalance due to excess of homozygotes (F(is) > F(st)), denoting a certain intrapopulational differentiation. Although the populations are genetically very close (D = 0.003-0.052), the dendrogram separates the populations in two groups: Macapá separated from that of Manaus, Ji-Paraná, and Aripuanã. This result may suggest a reduction in the genic flow, which possibly had some influence in the substructuration of the populations.
Objective: Analyze the occurrence of dyslipidaemia and associated factors in children aged 2 to 9 years. Method: Cross-sectional study, carried out with 700 children, in a region of Northeast Brazil. For comparison of means, Student’s t test was used; and, for the comparison of medians, the Mann-Whitney test. Results: A prevalence of dyslipidaemia of 68.4% was found. In isolation, the majority had a level of: total desirable cholesterol (386; 55.1%), undesirable lipoprotein cholesterol (376; 53.7%), low density lipoproteins - desirable cholesterol (514; 73.4%) and desirable triglyceride (509; 72.7%). In the final multivariate model, only the variable “preschool age” was significant (prevalence ratio = 1.14), indicating that these children are more likely to have dyslipidaemia than those of school age. Conclusion: An association was found between dyslipidaemia and preschool age. The need for programs and strategies to better understand this problem is indicated, in addition to preventing early coronary diseases.
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