Interest in utilizing ultrasound (US) transducers for non-invasive neuromodulation treatment, including for low intensity transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation (tFUS), has grown rapidly. The most widely demonstrated US transducers for tFUS are either bulk piezoelectric transducers or capacitive micromachine transducers (CMUT) which require high voltage excitation to operate. In order to advance the development of the US transducers towards small, portable devices for safe tFUS at large scale, a low voltage array of US transducers with beam focusing and steering capability is of interest. This work presents the design methodology, fabrication, and characterization of 32-element phased array piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUT) using 1.5 µm thick Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 films doped with 2 mol% Nb. The electrode/piezoelectric/electrode stack was deposited on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer with a 2 µm silicon device layer that serves as the passive elastic layer for bendingmode vibration. The fabricated 32-element PMUT has a central frequency at 1.4 MHz. Ultrasound beam focusing and steering (through beamforming) was demonstrated where the array was driven with 14.6 V square unipolar pulses. The PMUT generated a maximum peak-to-peak focused acoustic pressure output of 0.44 MPa at a focal distance of 20 mm with a 9.2 mm and 1 mm axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The maximum pressure is equivalent to a spatial-peak pulse-average intensity of 1.29 W/cm 2 , which is suitable for tFUS application.
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