This paper provides a new approach to test for accrual-based earnings management. Our approach exploits the inherent property of accrual accounting that any accrual-based earnings management in one period must reverse in another period. If the researcher has priors concerning the timing of the reversal, incorporating these priors can significantly improve the power and specification of tests for earnings management. Our results indicate that tests incorporating reversals increase test power by around 40% and provide a robust solution for mitigating model misspecification arising from correlated omitted variables.
Activation of glycolytic genes by HIF-1 is considered critical for metabolic adaptation to hypoxia through increased conversion of glucose to pyruvate and subsequently to lactate. We found that HIF-1 also actively suppresses metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) by directly trans-activating the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). PDK1 inactivates the TCA cycle enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Forced PDK1 expression in hypoxic HIF-1alpha null cells increases ATP levels, attenuates hypoxic ROS generation, and rescues these cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These studies reveal a hypoxia-induced metabolic switch that shunts glucose metabolites from the mitochondria to glycolysis to maintain ATP production and to prevent toxic ROS production.
Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the single copy human protein, mediate glucose transport. Arabidopsis SWEET8 is essential for pollen viability, and the rice homologues SWEET11 and SWEET14 are specifically exploited by bacterial pathogens for virulence by means of direct binding of a bacterial effector to the SWEET promoter. Bacterial symbionts and fungal and bacterial pathogens induce the expression of different SWEET genes, indicating that the sugar efflux function of SWEET transporters is probably targeted by pathogens and symbionts for nutritional gain. The metazoan homologues may be involved in sugar efflux from intestinal, liver, epididymis and mammary cells.The molecular nature of cellular sugar efflux in both plants and animals is unknown despite the fact that sugar efflux is an essential component for cellular exchange of carbon and energy in multicellular organisms  . Sugar efflux from the tapetum or transmitting tract of the style, for example, fuels pollen development and pollen tube growth 5 . Flowers secrete sugars for nectar production to attract pollinators, and plants secrete carbohydrates into the rhizosphere, potentially to feed beneficial microorganisms 6 . Sugar efflux carriers are
DNA barcoding involves sequencing a standard region of DNA as a tool for species identification. However, there has been no agreement on which region(s) should be used for barcoding land plants. To provide a community recommendation on a standard plant barcode, we have compared the performance of 7 leading candidate plastid DNA regions (atpF-atpH spacer, matK gene, rbcL gene, rpoB gene, rpoC1 gene, psbK-psbI spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer). Based on assessments of recoverability, sequence quality, and levels of species discrimination, we recommend the 2-locus combination of rbcL؉matK as the plant barcode. This core 2-locus barcode will provide a universal framework for the routine use of DNA sequence data to identify specimens and contribute toward the discovery of overlooked species of land plants.matK ͉ rbcL ͉ species identification L arge-scale standardized sequencing of the mitochondrial gene CO1 has made DNA barcoding an efficient species identification tool in many animal groups (1). In plants, however, low substitution rates of mitochondrial DNA have led to the search for alternative barcoding regions. From initial investigations of plastid regions (2-4), 7 leading candidates have emerged (5, 6). Four are portions of coding genes (matK, rbcL, rpoB, and rpoC1), and 3 are noncoding spacers (atpF-atpH, trnH-psbA, and psbK-psbI). Different research groups have proposed various combinations of these loci as their preferred plant barcodes, but no consensus has emerged (5-12). This lack of an agreed standard has impeded progress in plant barcoding.Our aim here is to identify a standard DNA barcode for land plants. To achieve this goal, we have pooled data across laboratories including sequence data from 907 samples, representing 445 angiosperm, 38 gymnosperm, and 67 cryptogam species. Using various subsets of these data, we evaluated the 7 candidate loci using criteria in the Consortium for the Barcode of Life's (CBOL) data standards and guidelines for locus selection (http:// www.barcoding.si.edu/protocols.html). Universality: Which loci can be routinely sequenced across the land plants? Sequence quality and coverage: Which loci are most amenable to the production of bidirectional sequences with few or no ambiguous base calls? Discrimination: Which loci enable most species to be distinguished? ResultsUniversality. Direct universality assessments using a single primer pair for each locus in angiosperms resulted in 90%-98% PCR and sequencing success for 6/7 regions. Success for the seventh region, psbK-psbI, was 77% (Fig. 1A). Greater problems were encountered in other land plant groups, with rpoB, matK, atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI all showing Ͻ50% success in gymnosperms and/or cryptogams based on data compiled from several laboratories (Fig. 1 A).Sequence Quality. Evaluation of sequence quality and coverage from the candidate loci demonstrated that high quality bidirectional sequences were routinely obtained from rbcL, rpoC1, and rpoB (Fig. 1B, x axis). The remaining 4 loci required more manual editing and produced f...
Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is one of only two mammalian enzymes known to contain both FAD and FMN, the other being nitric-oxide synthase. CPR is a membrane-bound protein and catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. The structure of rat liver CPR, expressed in Escherichia coli and solubilized by limited trypsinolysis, has been determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.6 Å resolution. The molecule is composed of four structural domains:
Artificial van der Waals heterostructures with two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are promising as an active channel or as a buffer contact layer for next-generation devices. However, genuine 2D heterostructure devices remain limited because of impurity-involved transfer process and metastable and inhomogeneous heterostructure formation. We used laser-induced phase patterning, a polymorph engineering, to fabricate an ohmic heterophase homojunction between semiconducting hexagonal (2H) and metallic monoclinic (1T') molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) that is stable up to 300°C and increases the carrier mobility of the MoTe2 transistor by a factor of about 50, while retaining a high on/off current ratio of 10(6). In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy results combined with theoretical calculations reveal that the Te vacancy triggers the local phase transition in MoTe2, achieving a true 2D device with an ohmic contact.
More than 80 years ago, the renowned biochemist Otto Warburg described how cancer cells avidly consume glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Recent studies arguing that cancer cells benefit from this phenomenon, termed the Warburg effect, have renewed discussions about its exact role as cause, correlate, or facilitator of cancer. Molecular advances in this area may reveal tactics to exploit the cancer cell's ''sweet tooth'' for cancer therapy. (Cancer Res 2006; 66(18): 8927-30)
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