We observed thirteen Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N 2 H + distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC 3 N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N 2 H + emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN 13 C, N 2 D + , cyclic-C 3 H 2 toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N 2 D + is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH 3 emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most of targets are cold ( 20 K). In two of the starless clumps observe, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N 2 H + core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing
PurposeBoth telomere length and mitochondrial function are accepted as reflective indices of aging. Recent studies have shown that telomere dysfunction may influence impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function. However, there has been no study regarding the possible association between telomere and mitochondrial function in humans. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify any relationships between mitochondrial and telomere function.MethodsThe present study included 129 community-dwelling, elderly women. The leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length were measured using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Anthropometric measurement, biochemical blood testing, a depression screening questionnaire using a 15-question geriatric depression scale (GDS-15), and a cognitive function test using the Korean version of the mini mental state examination (K-MMSE) were performed.ResultsLeukocyte mtDNA copy number was positively associated with telomere length (r=0.39, p=<0.0001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.06, p=0.02). Additionally, leukocyte mtDNA copy number was negatively correlated with GDS-15 score (r=-0.17, p=0.04). Age (r=-0.15, p=0.09), waist circumference (r=-0.16, p=0.07), and serum ferritin level (r=-0.13, p=0.07) tended to be inversely correlated with leukocyte mtDNA copy number. With a stepwise multiple regression analysis, telomere length was found to be an independent factor associated with leukocyte mtDNA copy number after adjustment for confounding variables including age, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, serum ferritin, HOMA-IR, K-MMSE, GDS-15, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, currently smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular exercise.ConclusionsThis study showed that leukocyte mtDNA copy number was positively correlated with leukocyte telomere length in community-dwelling elderly women. Our findings suggest that telomere function may influence mitochondrial function in humans.
We present the results of a single-pointing survey of 207 dense cores embedded in Planck Galactic Cold Clumps distributed in five different environments (λ Orionis, Orion A, B, Galactic plane, and high latitudes) to identify dense cores on the verge of star formation for the study of the initial conditions of star formation. We observed these cores in eight molecular lines at 76-94 GHz using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. We find that early-type molecules (e.g., CCS) have low detection rates and that late-type molecules (e.g., N 2 H + , cC 3 H 2) and deuterated molecules (e.g., N 2 D + , DNC) have high detection rates, suggesting that most of the cores are chemically evolved. The deuterium fraction (D/H) is found to decrease with increasing distance, indicating that it suffers from differential beam dilution between the D/H pair of lines for distant cores (>1 kpc). For λ Orionis, Orion A, and B located at similar distances, D/H is not significantly different, suggesting that there is no systematic difference in the observed chemical properties among these three regions. We identify at least eight high D/H cores in the Orion region and two at high latitudes, which are most likely to be close to the onset of star formation. There is no clear evidence of the evolutionary change in turbulence during the starless phase, suggesting that the dissipation of turbulence is not a major mechanism for the beginning of star formation as judged from observations with a beam size of 0.04 pc.
Animal locomotion is mediated by a sensory system referred to as proprioception. Defects in the proprioceptive coordination of locomotion result in uncontrolled and inefficient movements. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying proprioception are not fully understood. Here, we identify two transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, trp-1 and trp-2, as necessary and sufficient for proprioceptive responses in C. elegans head steering locomotion. Both channels are expressed in the SMDD neurons, which are required and sufficient for head bending, and mediate coordinated head steering by sensing mechanical stretches due to the contraction of head muscle and orchestrating dorsal head muscle contractions. Moreover, the SMDD neurons play dual roles to sense muscle stretch as well as to control muscle contractions. These results demonstrate that distinct locomotion patterns require dynamic and homeostatic modulation of feedback signals between neurons and muscles.
Habitual physical exercise is associated with greater telomere length in postmenopausal women. This finding suggests that habitual physical exercise in postmenopausal women may reduce telomere attrition.
The present study quantified surface doses on several rectangular phantom setups and on curved surface phantoms for a 6 MV photon field using the Attix parallel‐plate chamber and Gafchromic EBT2 film. For the rectangular phantom setups, the surface doses on a homogenous water equivalent phantom and a water equivalent phantom with 60 mm thick lung equivalent material were measured. The measurement on the homogenous phantom setup showed consistency in surface and near‐surface doses between an open field and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) fields, whereas physical wedged fields showed small differences. Surface dose measurements made using the EBT2 film showed good agreement with results of the Attix chamber and results obtained in previous studies which used other dosimeters within the measurement uncertainty of 3.3%. The surface dose measurements on the phantom setup with lung equivalent material showed a small increase without bolus and up to 6.9% increase with bolus simulating the increase of chest wall thickness. Surface doses on the cylindrical CT phantom and customized Perspex chest phantom were measured using the EBT2 film with and without bolus. The results indicate the important role of the presence of bolus if the clinical target volume (CTV) is quite close to the surface. Measurements on the cylindrical phantom suggest that surface doses at the oblique positions of 60° and 90° are mainly caused by the lateral scatter from the material inside the phantom. In the case of a single tangential irradiation onto Perspex chest phantom, the distribution of the surface dose with and without bolus materials showed opposing inclination patterns, whereas the dose distribution for two opposed tangential fields gave symmetric dose distribution. This study also demonstrates the suitability of Gafchromic EBT2 film for surface dose measurements in megavoltage photon beams.PACS number: 87.53.Bn
Based on the results of this study, the new PRESAGE formulations with lower halogen content are more radiologically water equivalent overall than the original formulation. This indicates that the new PRESAGE formulations are better suited to clinical applications and are more accurate dosimeters and phantoms than the original PRESAGE formulation. While correction factors are still needed to convert the dose measured by the dosimeter to an absorbed dose in water in the kilovoltage energy range, these correction factors are considerably smaller for the new PRESAGE formulations compared to the original PRESAGE and the existing polymer gel dosimeters.
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