The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB, http://www.hmdb.ca) is a richly annotated resource that is designed to address the broad needs of biochemists, clinical chemists, physicians, medical geneticists, nutritionists and members of the metabolomics community. Since its first release in 2007, the HMDB has been used to facilitate the research for nearly 100 published studies in metabolomics, clinical biochemistry and systems biology. The most recent release of HMDB (version 2.0) has been significantly expanded and enhanced over the previous release (version 1.0). In particular, the number of fully annotated metabolite entries has grown from 2180 to more than 6800 (a 300% increase), while the number of metabolites with biofluid or tissue concentration data has grown by a factor of five (from 883 to 4413). Similarly, the number of purified compounds with reference to NMR, LC-MS and GC-MS spectra has more than doubled (from 380 to more than 790 compounds). In addition to this significant expansion in database size, many new database searching tools and new data content has been added or enhanced. These include better algorithms for spectral searching and matching, more powerful chemical substructure searches, faster text searching software, as well as dedicated pathway searching tools and customized, clickable metabolic maps. Changes to the user-interface have also been implemented to accommodate future expansion and to make database navigation much easier. These improvements should make the HMDB much more useful to a much wider community of users.
Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca.
A simple and facile method was developed to prepare fluorescent carbon nanocrystals (CNCs) with low cytotoxicity and no photobleaching, by electrooxidation of graphite in aqueous solution.
Rubidium (Rb) is explored as an alternative cation to use in a novel multication method with the formamidinium/methylammonium/cesium (Cs) system to obtain 1.73 eV bangap perovskite cells with negligible hysteresis and steady state efficiency as high as 17.4%. The study shows the beneficial effect of Rb in improving the crystallinity and suppressing defect migration in the perovskite material. The light stability of the cells examined under continuous illumination of 12 h is improved upon the addition of Cs and Rb. After several cycles of 12 h light–dark, the cell retains 90% of its initial efficiency. In parallel, sputtered transparent conducting oxide thin films are developed to be used as both rear and front transparent contacts on quartz substrate with less than 5% parasitic absorption of near infrared wavelengths. Using these developments, semi‐transparent perovskite cells are fabricated with steady state efficiency of up to 16.0% and excellent average transparency of ≈84% between 720 and 1100 nm. In a tandem configuration using a 23.9% silicon cell, 26.4% efficiency (10.4% from the silicon cell) in a mechanically stacked tandem configuration is demonstrated which is very close to the current record for a single junction silicon cell of 26.6%.
Upland cotton is the most important natural-fiber crop. The genomic variation of diverse germplasms and alleles underpinning fiber quality and yield should be extensively explored. Here, we resequenced a core collection comprising 419 accessions with 6.55-fold coverage depth and identified approximately 3.66 million SNPs for evaluating the genomic variation. We performed phenotyping across 12 environments and conducted genome-wide association study of 13 fiber-related traits. 7,383 unique SNPs were significantly associated with these traits and were located within or near 4,820 genes; more associated loci were detected for fiber quality than fiber yield, and more fiber genes were detected in the D than the A subgenome. Several previously undescribed causal genes for days to flowering, fiber length, and fiber strength were identified. Phenotypic selection for these traits increased the frequency of elite alleles during domestication and breeding. These results provide targets for molecular selection and genetic manipulation in cotton improvement.
Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide, Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limiting oxygen availability. Genetic or small molecule activation of the hypoxia response is protective against mitochondrial toxicity in cultured cells and zebrafish models. Chronic hypoxia leads to a marked improvement in survival, body weight, body temperature, behavior, neuropathology and disease biomarkers in a genetic mouse model of Leigh syndrome, the most common pediatric manifestation of mitochondrial disease. Further preclinical studies are required to assess whether hypoxic exposure can be developed into a safe and effective treatment for human diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
We have studied the role of the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor EPAS-1͞hypoxia-inducible factor 2␣ in vascular development by gene targeting. In ICR͞129 Sv outbred background, more than half of the mutants displayed varying degrees of vascular disorganization, typically in the yolk sac, and died in utero between embryonic day (E)9.5 and E13.5. In mutant embryos directly derived from EPAS-1 ؊/؊ embryonic stem cells (hence in 129 Sv background), all embryos developed severe vascular defects both in the yolk sac and embryo proper and died between E9.5 and E12.5. Normal blood vessels were formed by vasculogenesis but they either fused improperly or failed to assemble into larger vessels later during development. Our results suggest that EPAS-1 plays an important role at postvasculogenesis stages and is required for the remodeling of the primary vascular network into a mature hierarchy pattern.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common bleeding disorder caused primarily by autoantibodies against platelet GPIIbIIIa and/or the GPIb complex. Current theory suggests that antibody-mediated platelet destruction occurs in the spleen, via macrophages through Fc–FcγR interactions. However, we and others have demonstrated that anti-GPIbα (but not GPIIbIIIa)-mediated ITP is often refractory to therapies targeting FcγR pathways. Here, we generate mouse anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize GPIbα and GPIIbIIIa of different species. Utilizing these unique mAbs and human ITP plasma, we find that anti-GPIbα, but not anti-GPIIbIIIa antibodies, induces Fc-independent platelet activation, sialidase neuraminidase-1 translocation and desialylation. This leads to platelet clearance in the liver via hepatocyte Ashwell–Morell receptors, which is fundamentally different from the classical Fc–FcγR-dependent macrophage phagocytosis. Importantly, sialidase inhibitors ameliorate anti-GPIbα-mediated thrombocytopenia in mice. These findings shed light on Fc-independent cytopenias, designating desialylation as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the treatment of refractory ITP.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers