Background and Study AimsTo obtain an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy (CE) a clear liquid diet and overnight fasting is recommended. However, intestinal content can hamper vision in spite of these measures. Our aim was to evaluate tolerance and degree of intestinal cleanliness during CE following three types of bowel preparation.
This work analyzes the consequences of climate change in the distribution of the Mediterranean high-mountain vegetation. A study area was chosen at the Sierra de Guadarrama, in the center of the Iberian Peninsula (1,795 to 2,374 m asl). Climate change was analyzed from the record of 18 variables regarding temperature, rainfall and snowfall over the period 1951-2000. The permanence of snow cover (1996)(1997)(1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004), landforms stability and vegetation distribution in 5 years (1956, 1972, 1984, 1991 and 1998) were all analyzed. The Nival Correlation Level of the different vegetation classes was determined through their spatial and/or temporal relationship with several climatologic variables, snow cover duration and landforms. In order to quantify trends and major change processes, areas and percent changes were calculated, as well as Mean Annual Transformation Indices and Transition Matrices. The findings reveal that in the first part of the study period (up to the first half of the 1970s) the temperature rise in the mid-winter months caused the reduction of some classes of nival vegetation, while others expanded, favored by high rainfall, A. García-Romero (B)
The aim of this paper is to study a type of nonlocal elliptic equation whose format includes a kernel k and a design function h. We analyze how this equation is connected with the classical elliptic equation that includes h as diffusive term. On one hand, the spectrum of the nonlocal operator that defines the nonlocal equation is studied. Existence and unicity of solutions for the nonlocal equation are proved. On the other hand, the convergence of these solutions to the solution of the classical elliptic equation as the kernel k converges to a Dirac Delta is analyzed. This work is performed by using an spectral theorem on the nonlocal operator and by applying some specific compactness results. The kernel k is assumed to be radial. Dirichlet boundary conditions are assumed for the classical problem, whereas for the nonlocal equation a nonlocal boundary Dirichlet constraint must be defined.
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In this work we are going to prove the functional J defined byis weakly lower semicontinuous in W 1,p (Ω) if and only if W is separately convex. We assume that Ω is an open set in R n and W is a real-valued continuous function fulfilling standard growth and coerciveness conditions. The key to state this equivalence is a variational result established in terms of Young measures.
It is well-known from the recent literature that nonlocal integral models are suitable to approximate integral functionals or partial differential equations. In the present work, a nonlocal optimal design model has been considered as approximation of the corresponding classical or local optimal control problem. The new model is driven by a nonlocal elliptic equation and the cost functional belongs to a broad class of nonlocal functional integrals. The purpose of this paper is to prove existence of optimal design for the new model. This work is complemented by showing that the limit of the nonlocal problem is the local one when the cost to minimize is the compliance functional (see ).
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