BackgroundCrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis.MethodsSystematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model.ResultsThirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables.ConclusionsThe current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40798-018-0124-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background The application of artificial intelligence (AI) opens an interesting perspective for predicting injury risk and performance in team sports. A better understanding of the techniques of AI employed and of the sports that are using AI is clearly warranted. The purpose of this study is to identify which AI approaches have been applied to investigate sport performance and injury risk and to find out which AI techniques each sport has been using. Methods Systematic searches through the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science online databases were conducted for articles reporting AI techniques or methods applied to team sports athletes. Results Fifty-eight studies were included in the review with 11 AI techniques or methods being applied in 12 team sports. Pooled sample consisted of 6456 participants (97% male, 25 ± 8 years old; 3% female, 21 ± 10 years old) with 76% of them being professional athletes. The AI techniques or methods most frequently used were artificial neural networks, decision tree classifier, support vector machine, and Markov process with good performance metrics for all of them. Soccer, basketball, handball, and volleyball were the team sports with more applications of AI. Conclusions The results of this review suggest a prevalent application of AI methods in team sports based on the number of published studies. The current state of development in the area proposes a promising future with regard to AI use in team sports. Further evaluation research based on prospective methods is warranted to establish the predictive performance of specific AI techniques and methods. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s40798-019-0202-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on the tonic and phasic characteristics of upper-body muscle activity during bench press exercise in trained subjects. The preexhaustion method involves working a muscle or a muscle group combining a single-joint exercise immediately followed by a multi-joint exercise (e.g., flying exercise followed by bench press exercise). Twelve subjects performed 1 set of bench press exercises with and without the preexhaustion method following 2 protocols (P1-flying before bench press; P2-bench press). Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM). Electromyography (EMG) sampled at 1 kHz was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (DA), and triceps brachii (TB). Kinematic data (60 Hz) were synchronized to define upward and downward phases of exercise. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were seen in tonic control of PM and DA muscles between P1 and P2. However, TB tonic aspect of neurophysiologic behavior of motor units was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P1. Moreover, phasic control of PM, DA, and TB muscles were not affected (p > 0.05). The kinematic pattern of movement changed as a result of muscular weakness in P1. Angular velocity of the right shoulder performed during the upward phase of the bench press exercise was significantly slower (p < 0.05) during P1. Our results suggest that the strategies set by the central nervous system to provide the performance required by the exercise are held constant throughout the exercise, but the tonic aspects of the central drive are increased so as to adapt to the progressive occurrence of the neuromuscular fatigue. Changes in tonic control as a result of the muscular weakness and fatigue can cause changes in movement techniques. These changes may be related to limited ability to control mechanical loads and mechanical energy transmission to joints and passive structures.
BackgroundStudies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n = 14 males) during pre-season training.FindingsThis was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p = 0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change = - 0.7%; ES = - 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change = + 2.4%; ES = + 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p = 0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group.ConclusionsCreatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training.
BackgroundSleep quality is an essential component of athlete’s recovery. However, a better understanding of the parameters to adequately quantify sleep quality in team sport athletes is clearly warranted.ObjectiveTo identify which parameters to use for sleep quality monitoring in team sport athletes.MethodsSystematic searches for articles reporting the qualitative markers related to sleep in team sport athletes were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science online databases. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes with 95% CI were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. The coefficient of variation (CV) with 95% CI was also calculated to assess the level of instability of each parameter.ResultsIn general, 30 measuring instruments were used for monitoring sleep quality. A meta-analysis was undertaken on 15 of these parameters. Four objective parameters inferred by actigraphy had significant results (sleep efficiency with small CV and sleep latency, wake episodes and total wake episode duration with large CV). Six subjective parameters obtained from questionnaires and scales also had meaningful results (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep efficiency), Likert scale (Hooper), Likert scale (no reference), Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire, Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire (sleep rating) and RESTQ (sleep quality)).ConclusionsThese data suggest that sleep efficiency using actigraphy, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Likert scale, Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire and RESTQ are indicated to monitor sleep quality in team sport athletes.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42018083941.
RESUMOA suplementação de creatina vem sendo utilizada amplamente na tentativa de aumentar força e massa magra em sujeitos saudáveis e atletas. Além disso, diversos estudos têm sido conduzidos no intuito de desvendar os mecanismos responsáveis pelas eventuais adaptações a esse suplemento. Diante disso, essa revisão teve como objetivos: 1) discutir os principais estudos que investigaram os efeitos da suplementação de creatina na força e hipertrofia; e 2) reunir as evidências acerca dos possíveis mecanismos responsáveis pelo aumento de força e massa magra como consequência desse suplemento, enfatizando os mais recentes achados e as perspectivas sobre o tema. De fato, existem fortes evidências demonstrando que a suplementação de creatina é capaz de promover aumentos de força e hipertrofia. Os efeitos desse suplemento sobre a retenção hídrica, o balanço proteico, a expressão de genes/proteínas associados à hipertrofia e ativação de células satélites, podem explicar as adaptações musculoesqueléticas observadas. Diante desses achados, os potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desse suplemento emergem como um futuro e promissor campo de estudo.Palavras-chave: efeitos ergogênicos, mecanismos, suplementos nutricionais. ABSTRACTCreatine supplementation has been widely used to increase both muscle strength and lean mass in healthy individuals and athletes. Furthermore, several studies have investigated the mechanisms responsible for such adaptations. Thus, this review aimed at 1) examining the major studies investigating the effects of creatine supplementation on strength and hypertrophy, and 2) exploring the mechanisms underlying these responses, stressing the most recent findings and perspectives regarding creatine supplementation. There is strong evidence demonstrating that creatine supplementation is able to enhance strength and hypertrophy. The effects of creatine on water retention, protein balance, genes/proteins related to hypertrophy, and satellite cells activation may explain the creatine-mediated muscle skeletal adaptations. In light of these findings, the potential therapeutic effects of creatine supplementation might be considered as a promising clinical and research field.Keywords: ergogenic effects, mechanisms, nutritional supplements. INTRODUÇÃOA creatina (ácido α-metil guanidino acético) é uma amina de ocorrência natural sintetizada endogenamente pelo fígado, rins e pâncreas, a partir dos aminoácidos glicina e arginina (1) . Pode também ser obtida via alimentação, especialmente pelo consumo de carne vermelha e peixes. A produção endógena (1g/dia) somada à obtida na dieta (1g/dia para uma dieta onívora) se iguala à taxa de degradação espontânea da creatina e fosfocreatina sob a forma de creatinina, por reação não enzimática (1) . A creatina é encontrada no corpo humano nas formas livre (60 a 70%) e fosforilada (30 a 40%). Cerca de 95% é armazenada no músculo esquelético, sendo que o restante situa-se no coração, músculos lisos, cérebro e testículos (2) . Desde que foi demonstrado que a suplementação de creatina ...
Rehabilitation for lower-limb amputees needs to focus on restoration of daily functions and independent locomotion. As gait is reestablished, reorganization of the motor pattern takes place in order to optimize the functions of the locomotor system. Biomechanics is a field of study that enables understanding of this reorganization. From such knowledge, appropriate strategies for recovering the autonomy of the means of locomotion can be established. Thus, this paper had the aim of reviewing the current status of the biomechanics of locomotion among unilateral transtibial amputees. To achieve this aim, papers written in English or Portuguese and published up to 2005 were selected from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Dedalus databases. In cases of transtibial amputation, the absence of plantar flexors negatively affects locomotion. Increased absorption and energy generation by the muscles that control the hip joint of the amputated leg can be considered to be the main compensatory strategy developed by unilateral transtibial amputees during gait. Factors associated with the characteristics of the amputation, prosthesis and experimental protocol used directly influence the results.
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