The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of B-mode, Doppler, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in predicting malignancy in canine mammary masses. This was a prospective cohort study from 2014 to 2016, which included 153 bitches with one or more mammary masses. A total of 300 masses were evaluated by ultrasonography (B-mode, Doppler, CEUS, and ARFI) and subsequently classified as benign or malignant by histopathology. Each ultrasound parameters studied were compared between benign and malignant masses by Chi-square or Student tests and differences were considered significant when P < 0.01. For the variables that proved significant differences were estimated the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis in a logistic regression model using histopathological classification as reference, to assess and compare diagnostic performance of each technique. Out of 300 mammary masses evaluated 246 were classified as malignant and 54 as benign. B-mode measurements showed sensitivity 67.9%, and specificity 67.6% as malignancy predictors on canine mammary masses; Doppler indexes systolic (>21.2 m/s) and diastolic velocity (>4.8 m/s) sensitivity 79.2% and specificity 70.8%; CEUS wash-out time (<80.5 s) sensitivity 80.2% and specificity 16.7%; and ARFI elastography shear velocity (SWV > 2.57 m/s) sensitivity 94.7% and specificity 97.2% In conclusion B-mode and Doppler ultrasound evaluations may assist in malignancy prediction of canine mammary masses with moderate sensitivity and specificity, already the SWV was an great accurate predictor. Therefore, ARFI elastography exam inclusion in veterinary clinic oncology and research is highly recommended, since it allows fast, non-invasive, and complication-free malignancy prediction of canine mammary masses.
Osteossarcoma (OSA) ou sarcoma osteogênico é a neoplasia óssea primária mais freqüente em cães. Vários procedimentos terapêuticos tem sido adotados sempre com o objetivo de melhorar a qualidade de vida do paciente. Este trabalho de revisão teve como objetivo apresentar aos profissionais da medicina veterinária de pequenos animais informações desta neoplasia no que diz respeito ao seu comportamento biológico, diagnóstico, opções de tratamento e prognóstico.
The effects of 2 diets with different protein contents on weight loss and subsequent maintenance was assessed in obese cats. The control group [Co; n = 8; body condition score (BCS) = 8.6 +/- 0.2] received a diet containing 21.4 g crude protein (CP)/MJ of metabolizable energy and the high-protein group (HP; n = 7; BCS = 8.6 +/- 0.2) received a diet containing 28.4 g CP/MJ until the cats achieved a 20% controlled weight loss (0.92 +/- 0.2%/wk). After the weight loss, the cats were all fed a diet containing 28.0 g CP/MJ at an amount sufficient to maintain a constant body weight (MAIN) for 120 d. During weight loss, there was a reduction of lean mass in Co (P < 0.01) but not in HP cats and a reduction in leptinemia in both groups (P < 0.01). Energy intake per kilogram of metabolic weight (kg(-0.40)) to maintain the same rate of weight loss was lower (P < 0.04) in the Co (344 +/- 15.9 kJ x kg(-0.40) x d(-1)) than in the HP group (377 +/- 12.4 kJ. x kg(-0.40) x d(-1)). During the first 40 d of MAIN, the energy requirement for weight maintenance was 398.7 +/- 9.7 kJ.kg(-0.40) x d(-1) for both groups, corresponding to 73% of the NRC recommendation. The required energy gradually increased in both groups (P < 0.05) but at a faster rate in HP; therefore, the energy consumption during the last 40 d of the MAIN was higher (P < 0.001) for the HP cats (533.8 +/- 7.4 kJ x kg(-0.40) x d(-1)) than for the control cats (462.3 +/- 9.6 kJ x kg(-0.40) x d(-1)). These findings suggest that HP diets allow a higher energy intake to weight loss in cats, reducing the intensity of energy restriction. Protein intake also seemed to have long-term effects so that weight maintenance required more energy after weight loss.
The aims of the study were (1) to quantify the influence of selected imaging parameters on the image quality (slice thickness, mAs, and beam orientation) defining optimal conditions for scan protocols and (2) to evaluate the benefits of the 3D reconstruction techniques for visualization of NDS structures in dogs. CT-DCG was performed bilaterally in 32 heads of dogs. CT transverse images were obtained using a combination of two slice thickness values (0.8 mm and 2 mm) and two mAs values (50 mAs and 300 mAs). Two beam projection orientations were also tested: transverse plane (perpendicular to the hard palate) and oblique to the hard palate. Three-dimensional images were obtained using Volume Rendering (VR). Transverse beam projection proved to be superior for the assessment of the inferior and superior lacrimal canaliculi and lacrimal sac. In this study, there was no statistical difference regarding mAs values (50 mAs and 300 mAs) and slice thickness values (0.8 mm and 2 mm). Three-dimensional images were helpful for the assessment of topographic relationship between nasolacrimal structures and cranial landmarks.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar a biocompatibilidade do cimento de fosfato de cálcio, para verificar sua eficácia como possível substituto ósseo. MÉTODOS: No presente trabalho, foi utilizado cimento de fosfato de cálcio em rádio de 8 coelhos, separados em dois grupos (GI e GII), referentes aos tempos de observação de 12 e 26 semanas pós-operatórias, a fim de se observar as reações entre este biomaterial e o tecido ósseo do animal. Foram feitas análises radiográficas e de densitometria óptica, além de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. RESULTADOS: Observou-se, ao final do experimento, que o cimento à base de fosfato de cálcio foi parcialmente reabsorvido durante o tempo de observação de 26 semanas, apresentando biocompatibilidade, com ausência de reações indesejáveis que pudessem ser atribuídas aos implantes. CONCLUSÕES: O cimento à base de fosfato de cálcio foi biocompatível e parcialmente reabsorvido no período de 26 semanas de observação. Tempos maiores de observação são necessários para a avaliação da reabsorção.
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