The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative pain after intracanal procedures based on an antimicrobial strategy. Data were examined from 627 teeth that had necrotic pulps or required retreatment. Information was obtained for each patient treated with regard to presence of preoperative pain. Occurrence of periradicular bone destruction detected by radiographs was also recorded. The operators consisted of undergraduate students, who were in their first year of clinical training. Root canals were instrumented and then medicated with a calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol paste. No systemic medication was prescribed. Approximately 1 week after the initial appointment, patients were asked about the occurrence of postoperative pain and the level of discomfort was rated as no pain, mild pain, moderate pain, or severe pain. Data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test. Mild pain occurred in 10% of the cases, moderate in 3.3%, and severe (flare-up) in 1.9%. Postoperative pain was significantly associated with the treatment of previously symptomatic teeth without periradicular lesions (p < 0.01). No other correlations were detected between the occurrence of postoperative discomfort and other clinical conditions. There was also no difference regarding the incidence of postoperative pain between treatment and retreatment (p > 0.01). The intracanal procedures used in this study to control root canal infections showed a small incidence of postoperative pain, particularly flare-ups, even performed by inexperienced undergraduate dental students.
Supervised exercise has shown benefits for subjects with asthma, but little is known about the effectiveness of unsupervised physical activity on this population. We investigated the effects of a 12-week unsupervised pedometer-based physical activity program on daily steps and on clinical and psychological parameters of adults with asthma. Clinically stable adults with moderate to severe asthma were encouraged to take daily 30-minute walks and were randomized to pedometer and control groups. The pedometer group received pedometers and individualized daily step targets. Changes in daily steps (average of steps taken during six consecutive days), six-minute walk test (6MWT), health-related quality of life, asthma control and anxiety and depression levels were assessed 12 weeks after intervention and 24-28 weeks after randomization. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and 30 completed the intervention. At 12 weeks, the groups differed significantly in daily steps (adjusted average difference, 2488 steps; 95% confidence interval [CI], 803 to 4172; p = 0.005) and in the 6MWT (adjusted average difference, 21.9 m; 95% CI, 6.6 to 37.3; p = 0.006). These differences were not significant 24-28 weeks after randomization. The program was effective in increasing daily steps of adults with moderate to severe asthma 12 weeks after intervention.
A 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction method was used to assess the occurrence of four black-pigmented anaerobic rods in root canal infections. Samples were obtained from 54 infected teeth. Ten cases were diagnosed as acute periradicular abscesses. DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based identification assay. The method allowed detection of black-pigmented bacteria anaerobes in 59.3% of the examined teeth. Twelve cases yielded more than one black-pigmented species. In general Porphyromonas endodontalis was found in 42.6%, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 27.8%, Prevotella nigrescens in 7.4%, and Prevotella intermedia in 5.6% of the cases. P. endodontalis was found in 70% of the pus samples, P. gingivalis in 40%, and P. intermedia in 10%. P. gingivalis was always found associated with P. endodontalis in abscessed teeth. P. nigrescens was not found in any pus sample. The high prevalence of P. endodontalis and P. gingivalis suggests that they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of periradicular diseases.
Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c (XF-9a5c) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC) are bacteria that infect citrus plants. Sequencing of the genomes of these strains is complete and comparative analyses are now under way with the genomes of other bacteria of the same genera. In this review, we present an overview of this comparative genomic work. We also present a detailed genomic comparison between XF-9a5a and XAC. Based on this analysis, genes and operons were identified that might be relevant for adaptation to citrus. XAC has two copies of a type II secretion system, a large number of cell wall-degrading enzymes and sugar transporters, a complete energy metabolism, a whole set of avirulence genes associated with a type III secretion system, and a complete flagellar and chemotatic system. By contrast, XF-9a5c possesses more genes involved with type IV pili biosynthesis than does XAC, contains genes encoding for production of colicins, and has 4 copies of Type I restriction/modification system while XAC has only one.
Background: Breast (BrC), colorectal (CRC) and lung (LC) cancers are the three most common and deadly cancers in women. Cancer screening entails an increase in early stage disease detection but is hampered by high false-positive rates and overdiagnosis/overtreatment. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs early in cancer and may be detected in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA), constituting a valuable biomarker and enabling non-invasive testing for cancer detection. We aimed to develop a ccfDNA methylation-based test for simultaneous detection of BrC, CRC and LC. Methods: CcfDNA from BrC, CRC and LC patients and asymptomatic controls were extracted from plasma, sodium-bisulfite modified and whole-genome amplified. APC, FOXA1, MGMT, RARβ2, RASSF1A, SCGB3A1, SEPT9, SHOX2 and SOX17 promoter methylation levels were determined by multiplex quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Associations between methylation and standard clinicopathological parameters were assessed. Biomarkers’ diagnostic performance was also evaluated. Results: A “PanCancer” panel (APC, FOXA1, RASSF1A) detected the three major cancers with 72% sensitivity and 74% specificity, whereas a “CancerType” panel (SCGB3A1, SEPT9 and SOX17) indicated the most likely cancer topography, with over 80% specificity, although with limited sensitivity. Conclusions: CcfDNA’s methylation assessment allows for simultaneous screening of BrC, CRC and LC, complementing current modalities, perfecting cancer suspects’ triage, increasing compliance and cost-effectiveness.
A 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction method was used to assess the occurrence of four black-pigmented anaerobic rods, Treponema denticola, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in acute periradicular abscesses. Pus was collected by aspiration from 10 cases diagnosed as acute abscesses of endodontic origin. DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based identification assay. The method allowed detecting black-pigmented anaerobes in 80% of the examined abscesses. Porphyromonas endodontalis was found in 70%, T. denticola in 50%, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 40%, and Prevotella intermedia in 10% of the cases. P. gingivalis was always found associated with P. endodontalis. Prevotella nigrescens and A. actinomycetemcomitans were not found in any pus sample. The high prevalence of P. endodontalis, T. denticola, and P. gingivalis suggests that they can play an important role in the etiology of acute periradicular abscesses.
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