Native fruits have been known as a great source of bioactive compounds with potential biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activities of araçá (Psidium cattleianum Sabine), butiá (Butia odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick) and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) and relate their chemical composition with the observed biological activity. Samples of mature fruits were extracted with ethanol and the observed biological activities were dependent of the species and concentration as well. Araçás were the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitors (IC 50 value of 25.4 ± 0.7 and 31.8 ± 0.7 µg/ml, respectively). Pitangas showed antiradical activities against DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Orange pitanga and butiá from Santa Vitória do Palmar were the most active concerning anion superoxide radical. All fruits are rich in total phenolic compounds with values in the range of 454.5 ± 17.3-908.3 ± 60.8 mg of equivalents of chlorogenic acid/100 g fresh weight. Purple pitanga stood out due to their levels of anthocyanins and carotenoids. Fruits showed similar amounts of total sugars, araçás and pitangas showed higher levels of reducing sugars while butiás were the richest ones in non-reducing sugars. Fruits with lower IC 50 values for α-glucosidase inhibition were correlated with higher concentrations of reducing sugars, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and carotenoids and grouped by principal component analysis (PCA). The obtained results indicate that these native fruits are promising sources of α-glucosidase inhibitors and antioxidants that can be used to control glycemia in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
The use of mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) as working tool for the study of the C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic and aromatic acids has allowed the tentative characterization of these compounds in Spergularia rubra and the establishment of the position of the acylation on the sugar moiety of the C-glycosylation by use of MS data. The combination of retention time (Rt), ultraviolet (UV) and MS(n) data of the compounds revealed their C-glycosyl flavone nature, being luteolin, apigenin and chrysoeriol derivatives. Ten non-acylated flavones were identified, from which six are described for the first time (one 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-glycosyl flavone, four 6,8-diC-glycosyl flavones and one 2"-O-glycosyl-6-C-glycosyl flavone). Twenty-six acylated derivatives were also found for the first time. These compounds are grouped in three classes, namely, C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic acids, with aromatic acids or with a mixed acylation. The first group is characterized by the presence of one 6,8-diC-(acetyl)glycosyl flavone, four 6,8-diC-(malonyl)glycosyl flavones and two 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-(malonyl)glycosyl flavones, while in the second one twelve 6,8-diC-(acyl)glycosyl flavones and two 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-(acyl)glycosyl flavones are described. The last class contained five 6,8-diC-(malonyl,acyl)glycosyl flavones. No previous work has described the presence of C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic acids in this genus.
Psidium cattleianum Sabine, commonly known as araçá, is a Brazilian native fruit, which is very juicy, with sweet to sub acid pulp and a spicy touch. The fruit can be eaten fresh or processed into juice, jellies and ice creams. Araçás are source of vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, polysaccharides, volatile compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, which can provide nutrients and phytochemical agents with different biological functions. Different pharmacological studies demonstrate that P. cattleianum exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects. Thus, this article aims to review the chemical composition and biological effects reported for araçá fruit in the last years.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) is a wild herb with high nutritional value that can be eaten raw or cooked. A metabolomic study was performed with different extracts of its aerial parts that were tested concerning their antiradical, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD, organic acids and amino acids were determined by HPLC-UV, while free fatty acids and sterols were analysed by GC-ITMS. The vegetal material was rich in kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (mean value 2247.09 mg/kg of dry plant), quinic acid (95628.00 mg/kg of dry plant), arginine (mean value of 1.18 mg/kg of dry plant), palmitic acid (284.48 mg/kg) and β-sitosterol (28%). The extracts presented a concentration-dependent antiradical activity (against DPPH• , O 2 •-and LOO • ), being most effective against • NO (EC25 0.20 μg/mL). In addition, the extracts were also acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and antibacterial active, revealing that, besides the plant's good nutritional value, it presents important biological properties as well.
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