Our results can be useful to researchers using the WHOQOL-bref to compare their results with normative data from a randomly selected sample of general population. Additionally, the ability of WHOQOL-bref to discriminate different population subgroups makes it an important tool to identify vulnerable groups in epidemiological surveys.
BackgroundThe global burden of diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases is high, and 80% of those with diabetes now live in low and middle income countries. Yet, little information is available regarding prevalence of diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia in these countries, especially when a full range of diagnostic tests is employed. The purpose of this study is to provide a full accounting of these prevalences in a large, free-living Brazilian population.MethodsWe report baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants aged 35-74 years. Diabetes mellitus was ascertained by self-report of diagnosis, medication use, fasting glucose, an oral glucose tolerance test, and/or glycated hemoglobin. Cut-offs for diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia followed the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association. Adjusted prevalences were estimated through logistic regression.FindingsWith this full accounting, 19.7% (19.0%-20.3%) had diabetes mellitus, 50.4% being previously undiagnosed. Frequencies of intermediate hyperglycemia according to various criteria ranged from 16.1% to 52.6%. Diabetes or intermediate hyperglycemia was present in 79.1% of participants when using the most comprehensive definitions. The burden was greatest in the elderly, the obese, non-whites, and those with less formal education (p < 0.001).InterpretationThat four of every five free-living individuals aged 35-74 years working in selected public institutions in six Brazilian state capitals presented either diabetes or intermediate hyperglycemia highlights the advanced stage of the obesity – diabetes epidemic in urban Brazil and indicates the need for urgent action.
OBJECTIVE:To estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension and their absolute numbers in Brazil. , and who responded positively to questions about high blood pressure and diabetes, were analyzed. Percentages of self-reported hypertension and diabetes, estimated in the sample, were projected to the Brazilian population, according to age, sex and nutritional status, using the direct standardization method.
RESULTS:Prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% higher in women (6.0% vs. 4.4%), varying from 2.9% in Palmas (Northern Brazil) to 6.2% in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil). Prevalence of hypertension was 21.6% (21.3; 22.0) higher in women (24.4% vs. 18.4%), varying from 15.1% in Palmas to 24.9% in Recife (Northeastern Brazil). Prevalences increased with age and nutritional status. It was estimated that there were 6,317,621 adults who reported having diabetes and 25,690,145 adults who reported having hypertension in Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension are high in Brazil. Monitoring of these and other health conditions can be performed using strategies such as the VIGITEL, especially if followed by validation studies, aiming to generalize results.
The objective of this study was to provide normative SF-36 scores in a general population sample in Brazil and to describe differences in mean scores according to socio-demographic characteristics. The SF-36 questionnaire was distributed to a randomly selected sample of the general population of Porto Alegre in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The response rate was 68% and 755 subjects were included (38% male, 62% female). Lower health status was revealed among females in the 30 to 44 year age bracket, from the lower income class, with less education and self-reported chronic medical conditions. The results and percentiles of scores of the SF-36 are reported as normative data for the general population. The SF-36 was an acceptable and practical instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in a sample of Brazilians. The results of this study can be useful for researchers using the SF-36 questionnaire in other groups to compare the scores with normative data. The SF-36 may prove a valuable tool for discovering vulnerable groups in epidemiological studies due to the ability to discriminate between different population subgroups.
The results provide the first population-based value set for Brazil for SF-6D health states, making it possible to generate quality-adjusted life years for cost-utility studies using regional data. Besides, utility weights derived using the preferences of a sample from a southern Brazilian population can be derived from existing SF-36 data sets.
In order to describe adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy and its association with pre-pregnancy nutritional status and other factors, a cohort study of pregnant women enrolled at 16-36 weeks of gestation and followed up until delivery was carried out in prenatal care in primary care services in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Maternal weight was recorded at each prenatal care visit. Weight gain was classified as "adequate," "insufficient" or "excessive" (Institute of Medicine). Poisson regression was used to measure the associations. The sample was comprised of 667 women, and insufficient and excessive weight gain incidences were 25.8% and 44.8%, respectively. Overweight and obese before pregnancy had a significant increased risk of excessive weight gain in pregnancy (RR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.48-2.07, RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.23-1.96, respectively). Women with fewer than six prenatal visits had a 52% increased risk for weight gain below recommended values. Although insufficient weight gain may still be a public health problem, excessive gain is becoming a concern that needs immediate attention in prenatal care.
Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and mental disorders among pregnant women in southern Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 712 pregnant women recruited from the Study of Food Intake and Eating Behaviors in Pregnancy (ECCAGe). Food intake assessment was performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to evaluate participants' mental health. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Results: In the adjusted models, there was a high prevalence of major depressive disorder among women with low fruit intake (43%, PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.04-1.95) and high sweets and sugars intake (91%, PR 1.91, 95%CI 1.19-3.07). Women with a common-Brazilian dietary pattern had higher prevalence of major depressive disorder compared to those with a varied consumption pattern (PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.01-2.02). Low intake of beans was significantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder (PR 1.40, 95%CI 1.01-1.93). Conclusions: Low consumption of fruits and beans and intake of the common-Brazilian dietary pattern during pregnancy were associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders. These results reinforce the importance of an adequate dietary intake to ensure better mental health in pregnancy.
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