Abstract. From 2002 to 2007, 23 ferrets from Europe and the United States were diagnosed with systemic pyogranulomatous inflammation resembling feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The average age at the time of diagnosis was 11 months. The disease was progressive in all cases, and average duration of clinical illness was 67 days. Common clinical findings were anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, and large, palpable intra-abdominal masses; less frequent findings included hind limb paresis, central nervous system signs, vomiting, and dyspnea. Frequent hematologic findings were mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Grossly, whitish nodules were found in numerous tissues, most frequently the mesenteric adipose tissue and lymph nodes, visceral peritoneum, liver, kidneys, spleen, and lungs. One ferret had a serous abdominal effusion. Microscopically, pyogranulomatous inflammation involved especially the visceral peritoneum, mesenteric adipose tissue, liver, lungs, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, and/or blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for coronavirus antigen using monoclonal antibody FIPV3-70. Electron microscopic examination of inflammatory lesions identified particles with coronavirus morphology in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Partial sequencing of the coronavirus spike gene obtained from frozen tissue indicates that the virus is related to ferret enteric coronavirus.
The influence of orthographic transparency on the prevalence of dyslexia subtypes was examined in a review of multiple-case studies conducted in languages differing in orthographic depth (English, French, and Spanish). Cross-language differences are found in the proportion of dissociated profiles as a function of the dependent variables (speed or accuracy), the classification method (classical vs. regressionbased methods), and the control sample (chronological age vs. reading level controls). The classical method results in a majority of mixed profiles, whereas the regression-based method results in a majority of dissociated profiles. However, the regression-based method appears to result in less reliable subtypes within and between languages. Finally, reading-level comparisons revealed that the phonological subtype reflects a deviant developmental trajectory across all languages, whereas the surface subtype corresponds to a delayed developmental trajectory. The resultsCorrespondence should be sent to Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception (
Although understandings of scientific inquiry (as opposed to conducting inquiry) are included in science education reform documents around the world, little is known about what students have learned about inquiry during their elementary school years. This is partially due to the lack of any assessment instrument to measure understandings about scientific inquiry. However, a valid and reliable assessment has recently been developed and published, Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI; Lederman et al. , Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65–83). The purpose of this large‐scale international project was to collect the first baseline data on what beginning middle school students have learned about scientific inquiry during their elementary school years. Eighteen countries/regions spanning six continents including 2,634 students participated in the study. The participating countries/regions were: Australia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, England, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Mainland China, New Zealand, Nigeria, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States. In many countries, science is not formally taught until middle school, which is the rationale for choosing seventh grade students for this investigation. This baseline data will simultaneously provide information on what, if anything, students learn about inquiry in elementary school, as well as their beginning knowledge as they enter secondary school. It is important to note that collecting data from all of the approximately 200 countries globally was not humanly possible, and it was also not possible to collect data from every region of each country. The results overwhelmingly show that students around the world at the beginning of grade seven have very little understandings about scientific inquiry. Some countries do show reasonable understandings in certain aspects but the overall picture of understandings of scientific inquiry is not what is hoped for after completing 6 years of elementary education in any country.
El objetivo principal de este estudio consistió en la baremación y el análisis del desarrollo evolutivo, en una amplia muestra de población infantil de habla española, de dos pruebas destinada a la evaluación de la fluidez verbal (semántica y fonológica). Analizamos el desarrollo de ambas tareas dentro de un contexto de diseño transversal. Se seleccionó una muestra de 1.032 sujetos con edades comprendidas entre los 6 años y 3 meses y los 12 años y cuatro meses que cursaban entre primero y sexto de educación primaria. La fluidez verbal semántica se evaluó con la tarea de evocación ‘de animales en un minuto’ y la fluidez verbal fonológica se evaluó con las consignas ‘F, A, M’. Los resultados muestran una mejora progresiva en el rendimiento en función de la edad en ambas pruebas. Se presentan tablas de medias, desviación estándar y percentiles para los distintos grupos de edad.
The purpose of this study was to analyze possible gender-related differences in the prevalence of dyslexia. A cross-national comparison of Spain and Guatemala was conducted. Both countries speak the same language but have a different standard of living and educational level. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of Guatemalan and Spanish males and females children with dyslexia. The log-linear analysis indicated that the number of dyslexics detected was different across the countries but there were no differences as a function of
The main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the relative importance of complexity of syllable structure and task differences in measuring phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. This study is a replication of a study with children conducted by S. A. Stahl and B. A. Murray (1994). Results indicated that the complexity of syllable structure did indeed better describe the construct of phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. At the same time, the authors also found some differences in the pattern of literacy acquisition for their Spanish adults in comparison with child literacy acquisition in English.
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