Perioperative cardiac arrests were relatively higher in neonates, infants, the elderly and in males with severe underlying disease and under emergency surgery. All anaesthesia-related cardiac arrests were related to airway management and medication administration which is important for prevention strategies.
Endotracheal tubes cuff pressures in ICU and PACU are routinely high and significant higher when nitrous oxide is used. Endotracheal tubes cuff pressure should be routinely measured to minimize tracheal trauma.
This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality. Studies were identified by searching the Medline and Scielo databases, followed by a manual search for relevant articles. Our review includes studies published between 1954 and 2007. Each publication was reviewed to identify author(s), study period, data source, perioperative mortality rates, and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Thirty-three trials were assessed. Brazilian and worldwide studies demonstrated a similar decline in anesthesia-related mortality rates, which amounted to fewer than 1 death per 10,000 anesthetics in the past two decades. Perioperative mortality rates also decreased during this period, with fewer than 20 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics in developed countries. Brazilian studies showed higher perioperative mortality rates, from 19 to 51 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics. The majority of perioperative deaths occurred in neonates, children under one year, elderly patients, males, patients of ASA III physical status or poorer, emergency surgeries, during general anesthesia, and cardiac surgery followed by thoracic, vascular, gastroenterologic, pediatric and orthopedic surgeries. The main causes of anesthesia-related mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events related to anesthesia and drug administration. Our systematic review of the literature shows that perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil than in developed countries, while anesthesia-related mortality rates are similar in Brazil and in developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with cardiocirculatory and airway events. These data may be useful in developing strategies to prevent anesthesia-related deaths.
This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aimed to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE (1951-2011), PubMed (1966-2011), LILACS (1986-2011), and SciElo (1995-2011). Each paper was revised to identify the author(s), the data source, the time period, the number of patients, the time of death, and the perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Twenty trials were assessed. Studies from Brazil and developed countries worldwide documented similar total anesthesia-related mortality rates (<1 death per 10,000 anesthetics) and declines in anesthesia-related mortality rates in the past decade. Higher anesthesia-related mortality rates (2.4-3.3 per 10,000 anesthetics) were found in studies from developing countries over the same time period. Interestingly, pediatric perioperative mortality rates have increased over the past decade, and the rates are higher in Brazil (9.8 per 10,000 anesthetics) and other developing countries (10.7-15.9 per 10,000 anesthetics) compared with developed countries (0.41-6.8 per 10,000 anesthetics), with the exception of Australia (13.4 per 10,000 anesthetics). The major risk factors are being newborn or less than 1 year old, ASA III or worse physical status, and undergoing emergency surgery, general anesthesia, or cardiac surgery. The main causes of mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events. Our systematic review of the literature shows that the pediatric anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil and in developed countries are similar, whereas the pediatric perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil compared with developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with airway and cardiocirculatory events. The data regarding anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality rates may be useful in developing prevention strategies.
METHODS:Among 50 patients, ET cuff pressures were recorded before, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after starting and upon ending nitrous oxide anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: Air, with ET cuff infl ated with air to attain a cuff pressure of 20 cmH 2 O; and Lido, with ET cuff fi lled with 2% lidocaine plus 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to attain the same pressure. ET discomfort before tracheal extubation, and sore throat, hoarseness and coughing incidence were studied at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit, and sore throat and hoarseness were studied 24 hours after anesthesia.
RESULTS:Pressures in Lido cuffs were signifi cantly lower than in Air cuffs (p < 0.05). Tracheal complaints were similar for the two groups, except for lower ET discomfort and sore throat incidence after 24 hours and lower systolic arterial pressure at the time of extubation in the Lido group (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:ET cuffs fi lled with alkalinized lidocaine prevented the occurrence of high cuff pressures during N 2 O anesthesia and reduced ET discomfort and postoperative sore throat incidence. Thus, alkalinized lidocaine-fi lled ET cuffs seem to be safer than conventional airfi lled ET cuffs.
RESUMOOBJETIVO. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características clínicas da anestesia peridural realizada com ropivacaína associada à dexmedetomidina. MÉTODOS. Quarenta pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica de hérnia inguinal ou varizes de membros inferiores sob anestesia peridural participaram deste estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em: Grupo Controle (n = 20), ropivacaína 0,75%, 20 ml (150 mg); e Grupo Dexmedetomidina (n = 20), ropivacaína 0,75%, 20 ml (150 mg), mais dexmedetomidina, 1 µg.kg . As variáveis estudadas foram: tempo de latência do bloqueio sensitivo, dermátomo máximo de anestesia, tempo de duração dos bloqueios analgésico e motor, intensidade do bloqueio motor, nível de sedação, variáveis hemodinâmicas, analgesia pós-operatória e ocorrência de efeitos colaterais. RESULTADOS. A dexmedetomidina não influenciou o tempo de latência da anestesia nem o nível máximo do bloqueio sensitivo (p > 0,05), mas prolongou o tempo de duração dos bloqueios analgésico e motor (p < 0,05) e da analgesia pós-operatória (p < 0,05), além de determinar bloqueio motor de maior intensidade (p < 0,05). Os valores do índice bispectral foram menores no Grupo Dexmedetomidina (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença na incidência de hipotensão arterial e de bradicardia (p > 0,05). A ocorrência de efeitos colaterais (tremor, náuseas e SpO 2 < 90%) foi baixa e semelhante entre os grupos (p > 0,05). CONCLUSÃO. Há sinergismo evidente entre a dexmedetomidina e a ropivacaína na anestesia peridural sem que haja elevação da morbidade relacionada a associação dos fármacos.
INTRODUÇÃOA dexmedetomidina é um age nte agonista α 2 -adrenérgico que apresenta relação de seletividade entre os receptores α 2 :α 1 oito vezes maior que a clonidina e que, quando administrada por via venosa, propicia redução acentuada da necessidade do uso de agentes hipnó-ticos, anestésicos inalatórios e opióides durante procedimentos anestésico-cirúrgicos, além de diminuir a necessidade do uso de analgésicos para tratamento da dor pós-operatória  . Em modelos animais, verificou-se que a dexmedetomidina apresenta ação analgésica acentuada quando empregada pela via peridural, reduzindo a necessidade de opióides para que se obtenha um mesmo efeito analgésico ou mesmo, prolongando o efeito analgésico quando associada à doses fixas de opióides 4 . Verificou-se também que a dexmedetomidina por via peridural apresenta efeito analgésico dosidependente e superior àquele obtido pela administração venosa do fármaco, sendo seu efeito correlacionado com sua grande afinidade por receptores α 2 -adrenérgicos situados na medula espinhal 5 . No homem, a dexmedetomidina foi pela primeira vez administrada pela via peridural em 1997, associada à lidocaína 1,5%, em pacientes submetidas à histerectomia, prolong ando o tempo de analgesia pós-operatória 6 . No entanto, o potencial sinérgico entre a dexmedetomidina e os anestésicos locais ainda não foi documentado. Assim, com base nos estudos realizados com a clonidina 7,8 , testou-se a hipótese de que a dexmedetomidina inte...
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