The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a minivolleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game play) were evaluated prior to and on completion of the season. Paired t test analysis showed that the game performance components of decision making and game play achieved significant gains. Further, results of the regression analyses detected that the sigmoidal model was indeed superior to the linear model for (a) skill execution, (b) game play, and (c) knowledge, by explaining 4.0, 2.8, and 3.25 times more of the variance respectively. That is, improvements of the highest and lowest skilled students were less significant than those of more moderate levels. This outcome, accompanied by a lack of general improvement in skill execution, suggests that future research should examine in more detail the progressive development of the tasks and learning experiences incorporated during seasons of Sport Education.
Esta investigación forma parte del proyecto "Las competencias básicas en Educación Primaria. Percepción del profesorado y del alumnado. Propuesta de intervención desde el modelo de Educación Deportiva" (DEP 2012-33923), fi nanciado por el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.
Purpose:To determine whether a TGfU intervention improved participants’ decision-making, skill execution, game performance, game involvement, game knowledge, enjoyment, perceived competence, and intention to continue practicing sailing.Method:Participants were 19 sailors (age: M = 8.44, SD = 1.24 years old). This study followed a mixed-methods approach. The children participated in 12 TGfU intervention sessions and 2 prepost assessment sessions. We designed and validated the sessions, and the coach was trained in TGfU. Data were collected using GPAI during an Olympic triangle race, an ad hoc knowledge questionnaire, two psychological scales, and interviews of children and coach.Results:Statistically significant improvements were found in decision-making, Δ = 3.97, skill execution, Δ = .43, game performance, Δ = 5.34, and game involvement, Δ = 7.89.Discussion/Conclusion:The results support TGfU may serve to sail training in youth sport. Sailing coaches now have a teaching-learning framework that determines “what” and “how” the tasks must be, the feedback, and participant and coach behavior.
ResumenEl objetivo de la presente investigación fue diseñar y validar un instrumento de evaluación para conocer la percepción de los estudiantes universitarios-deportistas de alto nivel sobre la carrera dual. En la creación inicial del instrumento se definió el constructo y se establecieron tres dimensiones: carrera académica, carrera deportiva y tutor deportivo. En la validez de contenido, tras un proceso de traducción inversa, los expertos (n = 8) valoraron positivamente el constructo, las dimensiones y las preguntas cuestionario. Los resultados estadísticos de los ítems mostraron la adecuada validez de comprensión de los participantes (n = 30). En la validez de constructo (n = 73), las propiedades psicométricas mostraron la adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. El instrumento también contó con evidencias externas de validez, dado que los resultados fueron en la línea de lo que demuestra la literatura. Por ello, este trabajo ofrece un cuestionario válido y fiable de 84 preguntas (en español y en inglés) que permite medir la percepción de los estudiantes universitarios-deportistas de alto nivel sobre la carrera dual.Palabras clave: Carrera dual, estudios y deporte, proceso de aprendizaje, tutorización deportiva.
AbstractThe purpose of this paper was to design and validate a questionnaire about the perceptions of elite studentathletes at university relating to their dual career. In the initial creation of the instrument, constructs were defined and three dimensions were established: academic life, sporting life and sports tutor. After a process of 'back translation', experts (n = 8) agreed the construct to ensure content validity, the dimensions and the questionnaire questions. Statistical analysis of the items showed adequate comprehension to confirm content validity of participants (n = 30). In construct validity (n = 73), the results showed correct psychometric quality, internal consistency, reliability and adequacy of the structural model. The instrument had evidence of external validity, since the results were congruent with the main findings of the research. This questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable assessment instrument, consisting of 84 questions (in Spanish and English language), that enables the perception of elite student-athletes to be known about their dual career whilst at university.
According to the theory of practice architecture, every practice enacted in classrooms is a result of interaction between social, physical and spatial elements. In relation, from a practicereferenced perspective, it is necessary to know which teaching-learning implementation features could help teachers/coaches/researchers to assemble Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) interventions in relation to the institutional environment. Purpose: This review aimed to explore from a practice-referenced perspective how TGfU researchers reported their interventions based on the teaching-learning implementation features (intervention design as a function of the context, intervention length, lesson content, basic lesson elements, lesson alignment, teacher/coach experience with the approach, and lesson validation and treatment verification) and their association with learners' outcomes. Results: We found 20 studies that included some of the teaching-learning implementation features, but none of the studies included all of these features.We also found that studies of TGfU measured and reported learners' outcomes in a variety of ways. This creates difficulties for drawing conclusions about the relationships between the presence of teaching-learning implementation features and student learning outcomes.
Conclusion: Further TGfU interventions should be planned to consider the following: (a) that lessons need to be designed as a function of the context; (b) the number of intervention lessons, their duration and the duration of each lesson task; (c) the concrete tactical and technique contents and goals per lesson; (d) the modified games, questions and achievable challenges as basic lesson elements; (e) the alignment between the basic lesson elements and the structure of lessons, based on the goals of each lesson; (f) that teachers/coaches need to have previous SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF TGfU 2 experience in TGfU and be trained on the specific study purpose; (g) that lessons should be validated before implementation and verified during intervention; (h) researchers should regulate the ways in which learners' outcomes are measured and reported within TGfU studies.
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