The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the
genotypic diversity of S.
mutans in caries-free and caries-active
preschool children in Brazil.
Design. Twenty-eight preschool
children were examined regarding caries
experience by the dmft index. DNA from 280
isolates of S. mutans was
extracted. S. mutans evaluated
using to the PCR method, with primers for the
glucosyltransferase gene. The genetic diversity
of S. mutans isolates was
analyzed by arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR)
reactions. The differences between the diversity
genotypic and dmft/caries experience were
test and Spearman's correlation.
Results. The Spearman
correlation test showed a strong association
between genotypic diversity and caries
experience (r = 0.72;
P < .001).
There were more S. mutans
genotypes in the group of preschool children
with dental caries, compared with the
caries-free group. Among the children with more
than 1 genotype, 13 had dental caries (2 to 5
genotypes) and 4 were caries-free (only 2
genotypes). Conclusion. Our
results support the previous findings of genetic
diversity of S. mutans in
preschool children being associated with dental
caries. The investigation of such populations
may be important for directing the development
of programs for caries prevention
The marsh deer is the largest neotropical cervid with morphological and ecological adaptations to wetlands and riparian habitats. Historically, this now endangered species occupied habitats along the major river basins in South America, ranging from southern Amazonia into northern Argentina to the Parana´river delta. This particularly close association with wetlands makes marsh deer an excellent species for studying the effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on their demographic and phylogeographic patterns. We examined mitochondrial DNA variation in 127 marsh deer from 4 areas distributed throughout the Rı´o de la Plata basin. We found 17 haplotypes in marsh deer from Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina that differed by 1-8 substitutions in a 601 bp fragment of mitochondrial control region sequence, and 486 bp of cytochrome b revealed only 3 variable sites that defined 4 haplotypes. Phylogeny and distribution of control region haplotypes suggest that populations close to the Pantanal area in central Brazil underwent a rapid population expansion and that this occurred approximately 28,000-25,000 years BP. Paleoclimatic data from this period suggests that there was a dramatic increase for precipitation in the medium latitudes in South America and these conditions may have fostered marsh deer's population growth.
This study was conducted in October 1998 and November 1999 in the Emas National Park (131,868 ha), a savanna-type cerrado region situated in the far south of Goias State, Brazil, near the geographic center of South America (15 degrees -23 degrees S; 45 degrees -55 degrees W). Animals were captured with the aid of nets and anesthetized (15 mg/kg ketamine + 1 mg/kg xylasine) in order to collect ticks for identification and to establish laboratory colonies. They included giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) (n = 4) and yellow armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) (n = 6). Free-living ticks (larvae, nymphs, and adults) were collected from the field by using a 1 x 2-m flannel cloth. Free-living ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., A. cajennense, and A. triste. Adult ticks collected from anteaters were identified as Amblyomma cajennense and A. nodosum and from armadillos as A. pseudoconcolor and A. nodosum. The relevance of these host-tick relationships to possible mechanisms underlying emergence of tick-borne pathogens of importance to public health is discussed.
The new world screw‐worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is one of the most important parasitic insect pests. This species causes myiasis and, consequently, significant losses to livestock industries in neotropical regions. As part of an investigation into the genetic variability and population structure of the new world screw‐worm, a set of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers was isolated from an AC‐enriched genomic library. Amplification of the reported loci in 30 screw‐worms revealed an average of 6.9 alleles per locus with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.3831 to 0.8022. Cross‐species amplifications suggested that these loci may be useful in other Calliphoridae species.
SummaryBackground: Katahdin breed sheep is highly disseminated in Mexico. This breed and its crosses have recently gained attention among sheep producers. However, research with crosses between Katahdin and other meat breeds is limited. Objective: to evaluate the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting growth and mortality rate of crossbred lambs from Katahdin ewes fecundated with breeds specialized for meat production. Methods: crossbred lambs (n = 152) from Katahdin ewes sired with Hampshire (KH; n = 43), Texel (KT; n = 53) or Charolais (KCH; n = 56) were evaluated under intensive management conditions. The effects of genotype and non-genetic factors on birth weight, weaning weight, pre-weaning daily weight gain, and mortality rate were determined. Results: breed differences were not detected for birth weight (4 ± 1.1, 4.3 ± 0.9 and 4 ± 1.1 Kg for KCH, KH, KT, respectively), nor for the 60-d weaning weight (20.2 ± 4.3, 20.9 ± 4.3, 18.2 ± 4.2 Kg for KCH, KH, KT, respectively). Weight of lambs did not differ significantly between sexes, but it decreased (p<0.05) with increased litter size (weaning weight at 60 days for single, twins and triplets was 24.5 ± 2.6, 19.2 ± 3.5, and 14.3 ± 3.8 Kg, respectively). Pre-weaning mortality of KH lambs was 13.3% and it was significantly lower than that of the other genotypes (24.5 and 39.3% for KT and KCH, respectively). Conclusion: inclusion of Charolais, Hampshire or Texel rams in Katahdin flocks results in similar lamb weaning weight, but Hampshire-sired progeny excels regarding pre-weaning survival.
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