The main focus of this paper was to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male football. The most common research topics were identified, their methodologies described and the evolutionary tendencies of this research area systematised. A systematic review of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge database was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The following keywords were used: football and soccer, each one associated with the terms: match analysis, performance analysis, notational analysis, game analysis, tactical analysis and patterns of play. Of 2732 studies initially identified, only 53 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures abstracted and analysed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organised according to their research design as descriptive, comparative or predictive. Results showed that 10 studies focused predominantly on a description of technical, tactical and physical performance variables. From all comparative studies, the dependent variables more frequently used were "playing position" and "competitive level". Even though the literature stresses the importance of developing predictive models of sports performance, only few studies (n = 8) have focused on modelling football performance. Situational variables like game location, quality of opposing teams, match status and match half have been progressively included as object of research, since they seem to work as effective covariables of football performance. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, use standardised categories and description of activities and participants, and consider integrating the situational and interactional contexts into the analysis of football performance.
Age-related DNA damage is regarded as one of the possible explanations of aging. Although a generalized idea about the accumulation of DNA damage with age exists, results found in the literature are inconsistent. To better understand the question of age-related DNA damage in humans and to identify possible moderator variables, a meta-analysis was conducted.Electronic databases and bibliographies for studies published since 2004 were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-related DNA damage were calculated in a random-effects model.A total of 76 correlations from 36 studies with 4676 participants were included. Based on our analysis, a correlation between age and DNA damage was found (r = 0.230, p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval = 0.111 - 0.342). The test for heterogeneity of variance indicates that the study´s results are significantly high (Q (75) = 1754.831, p = 0.000). Moderator variables such as smoking habits, technique used, and the tissue/sample analyzed, are shown to influence age-related DNA damage (p=0.026; p=0.000; p=0.000, respectively). Nevertheless, sex did not show any influence on this relation (p=0.114).In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed an association between age and DNA damage in humans. It was also found that smoking habits, the technique used, and tissue/sample analyzed, are important moderator variables in age-related DNA damage.
No clear consensus has been reached regarding the association of IL-10 polymorphisms and periodontitis. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies and a systemic review in an effort to systematically summarize the existing knowledge. Studies were identified by searching PubMed database until December 2011. IL-10 -1082 (-1087) A>G, -819 (-824) C>T and -592 (-597) C>A polymorphisms were included in the present meta-analysis. We calculated the specific odds ratios along with their 95 % confidence intervals to compare the distribution of alleles and genotypes between cases and controls. An additive "per-allele" model (major allele vs. minor allele) was performed, and dominant and recessive models were also considered. The random-effects model was applied for the analysis. Cumulative analysis was also performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. Nine case-control studies involving 841 periodontitis cases (644 chronic periodontitis and 197 aggressive periodontitis cases) and 748 controls were included. We found statistically significant association of IL-10 -819 (-824) C>T and IL-10 -592 (-597) C>A polymorphisms in Caucasians. The IL-10 -819 (-824) T and -592 (-597) A alleles may confer a relative increase in the risk for chronic periodontitis in Caucasians. Future studies may be important to reinforce these findings.
In line with self-determination theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2002) the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness has been identified as an important predictor of behavior and optimal functioning in various contexts including exercise. The lack of a valid and reliable instrument to assess the extent to which these needs are fulfilled among Portuguese exercise participants limits the evaluation of causal links proposed by SDT in the Portuguese exercise context. The aim of the present study was to translate into Portuguese and validate the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES: Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006). Using data from 522 exercise participants the findings provided evidence of strong internal consistency of the translated BPNES subscales while confirmatory factor analysis supported a good fit of the correlated 3-factor model to the data. The present findings support the use of the translated into Portuguese BPNES to assess the extent of basic psychological need fulfilment among Portuguese exercise participants.
Although of low magnitude (r = .068), the intervention programs had a positive effect in prevention and decreasing obesity in children. This effect seems to be higher in older children's, involving interventions with physical activity and nutritional education combined, with parent's participation and with 1-year duration. School or after-school interventions had a similar effect.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and to test the hypothesis that the different types of behavioral regulation can be combined on a single factor to assess autonomous and controlled motivation. Data were collected from 550 members of private fitness centres who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years. The analysis supported an 18-item, 5-factor model after excluding one item (S-Bχ2 = 221.7, df = 125, p = .000, S-Bχ2/df = 1.77; SRMR = .06; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .04, 90% CI = .03-.05). However, the analysis also revealed a lack of internal consistency. The results of a hierarchical model based on 2 second-order factors that reflected controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation) provided an acceptable fit to the data (S-Bχ2 = 172.6, df = 74, p = .000, SB-χ2/df = 2.33; SRMR = .07; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA= .05, 90% CI = .04-.06), with reliability coefficients of .75 for controlled motivation and .76 for autonomous motivation. The study findings indicated that when item 17 was excluded, the Portuguese BREQ-2 was an appropriate measure of the controlled and autonomous motivation in exercise.
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