Recent advances in spring arrival dates have been reported in many migratory species but the mechanism driving these advances is unknown. As population declines are most widely reported in species that are not advancing migration, there is an urgent need to identify the mechanisms facilitating and constraining these advances. Individual plasticity in timing of migration in response to changing climatic conditions is commonly proposed to drive these advances but plasticity in individual migratory timings is rarely observed. For a shorebird population that has significantly advanced migration in recent decades, we show that individual arrival dates are highly consistent between years, but that the arrival dates of new recruits to the population are significantly earlier now than in previous years. Several mechanisms could drive advances in recruit arrival, none of which require individual plasticity or rapid evolution of migration timings. In particular, advances in nest-laying dates could result in advanced recruit arrival, if benefits of early hatching facilitate early subsequent spring migration. This mechanism could also explain why arrival dates of short-distance migrants, which generally return to breeding sites earlier and have greater scope for advance laying, are advancing more rapidly than long-distance migrants.
Abstract. The relative fitness of individuals across a population can shape distributions and drive population growth rates. Migratory species often winter over large geographic ranges, and individuals in different locations experience very different environmental conditions, including different migration costs, which can potentially create fitness inequalities. Here we used energetics models to quantify the trade-offs experienced by a migratory shorebird species at locations throughout the nonbreeding range, and the associated consequences for migratory performance, survival, and breeding habitat quality. Individuals experiencing more favorable winter conditions had higher survival rates, arrived on the breeding grounds earlier, and occupied better quality breeding areas, even when migration costs are substantially higher, than individuals from locations where the energy balance on the wintering grounds was less favorable. The energy costs and benefits of occupying different winter locations can therefore create fitness inequalities which can shape the distribution and population-wide demography of migratory species.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of complex and contrast training (CCT) on vertical jump (squat and countermovement jump), sprint (5 and 15 m), and agility (505 Agility Test) abilities in soccer players. Twenty-three young elite Portuguese soccer players (age 17.4 +/- 0.6 years) were divided into 2 experimental groups (G1, n = 9, and G2, n = 8) and 1 control group (G3, n = 6). Groups G1 and G2 have done their regular soccer training along with a 6-week strength training program of CCT, with 1 and 2 training sessions.wk, respectively. G3 has been kept to their regular soccer training program. Each training session from the CCT program was organized in 3 stations in which a general exercise, a multiform exercise, and a specific exercise were performed. The load was increased by 5% from 1 repetition maximum each 2 weeks. Obtained results allowed identifying (a) a reduction in sprint times over 5 and 15 m (9.2 and 6.2% for G1 and 7.0 and 3.1%, for G2; p < 0.05) and () an increase on squat and jump (12.6% for G1 and 9.6% for G2; p < 0.05). The results suggested that the CCT induced the performance increase in 5 and 15 m sprint and in squat jump. Vertical jump and sprint performances after CCT program were not influenced by the number of CCT sessions per week (1 or 2 sessions.wk). From the obtained results, it was suggested that the CCT is an adequate training strategy to develop soccer players' muscle power and speed.
Nocturnal avian migration flyways remain an elusive concept, as we have largely lacked methods to map their full extent. We used the network of European weather radars to investigate nocturnal bird movements at the scale of the European flyway. We mapped the main migration directions and showed the intensity of movement across part of Europe by extracting biological information from 70 weather radar stations from northern Scandinavia to Portugal, during the autumn migration season of 2016. On average, over the 20 nights and all sites, 389 birds passed per 1 km transect per hour. The night with highest migration intensity showed an average of 1621 birds km–1 h–1 passing the radar stations, but there was considerable geographical and temporal variation in migration intensity. The highest intensity of migration was seen in central France. The overall migration directions showed strong southwest components. Migration dynamics were strongly related to synoptic wind conditions. A wind‐related mass migration event occurred immediately after a change in wind conditions, but quickly diminished even when supporting winds continued to prevail. This first continental‐scale study using the European network of weather radars demonstrates the wealth of information available and its potential for investigating large‐scale bird movements, with consequences for ecosystem function, nutrient transfer, human and livestock health, and civil and military aviation.
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