The dual role of microglia in cytotoxicity and neuroprotection is believed to depend on the specific, temporal expression of microglial-related genes. To better clarify this issue, we used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to examine microglial gene expression after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We compared expression changes at the lesion site, as well as in rostral and caudal regions after mild, moderate, or severe SCI. Using microglial-associated anchor genes, we identified two clusters with different temporal profiles. The first, induced by 4 h postinjury to peak between 4 and 24 h, included interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, osteopontin, and calgranulin, among others. The second was induced 24 h after SCI, and peaked between 72 h and 7 days; it included C1qB, Galectin-3, and p22(phox). These two clusters showed similar expression profiles regardless of injury severity, albeit with slight decreases in expression in mild or severe injury vs. moderate injury. Expression was also decreased rostral and caudal to the lesion site. We validated the expression of selected cluster members at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, we demonstrated that stimulation of purified microglia in culture induces expression of C1qB, Galectin-3, and p22(phox). Finally, inhibition of p22(phox) activity within microglial cultures significantly suppressed proliferation in response to stimulation, confirming that this gene is involved in microglial activation. Because microglial-related factors have been implicated both in secondary injury and recovery, identification of temporally distinct clusters of genes related to microglial activation may suggest distinct roles for these groups of factors.
Abstract-We present a new Ultra Wide Band (UWB) TimedArray Transmitter System with Beamforming capability for high-resolution remote acquisition of vital signals. The system consists of four identical channels, where each is formed of a serial topology with three modules: programmable delay circuit (PDC or τ), a novel UWB 5 th Gaussian Derivative order pulse generator circuit (PG), and a planar Vivaldi antenna. The circuit was designed using 0.18µm CMOS standard process and the planar antenna array was designed with filmconductor on Rogers RO3206 substrate. Spice simulations results showed the pulse generation with 104 mVpp amplitude and 500 ps width. The power consumption is 543 µW, and energy consumption 0.27 pJ per pulse using a 2V power supply at a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 100 MHz. Electromagnetic simulations results, using CST Microwave (MW) Studio 2011, showed the main lobe radiation with a gain maximum of 13.2 dB, 35.5º x 36.7º angular width, and a beam steering between 17º and -11º for azimuthal (θ) angles and 17º and -18º for elevation (φ) angles at the center frequency of 6 GHz.
This paper proposes an integration framework for a sensors network in cyber-physical systems. The framework proposed is still an effort in development to ease the integration and management of software and hardware for sensor networks in cyber-physical systems. The parameters, modeling process and implementation of the framework presented in this work correspond to the first step of the modeling. Such step focuses on analysis and treatment of the functional requirements of the uses for the wireless sensor networks combined with a refined vision of the architecture and its main components.
Technology has been contributing significantly to the development of assistive devices for disabled persons (DPs). Many of these devices aim to assist people who are blind or visually impaired, providing them with friendlier ways to interact with their surroundings (obstacles, objects, and navigation). However, the high cost of these devices makes it difficult for DPs to purchase them. The development of an assistive device kit to be used by the visually impaired in controlled environments (indoor) or urban spaces (outdoor) is presented in this work with a didactic and detailed approach. This low-cost kit (USD 50 per device) consists of a Smart Cane, Smart Cap, and Smart Glove. The methodology addressed aims to support and encourage the reproduction, customization, and manufacture of new assistive devices with low cost and wide applicability. The devices are functional, benefit usability, and, due to the characteristics of the project and the materials used in their construction, do not impact the ergonomics of the visually impaired or disabled person who may use these devices. The devices that integrate the assistive kit can be used independently or combined. In addition to having detection, fall-control, navigation, and real-time tracking functions, they are independent of additional local infrastructure for their use.
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