Open Science is encouraged by the European Union and many other political and scientific institutions. However, scientific practice is proving slow to change. We propose, as early career researchers, that it is our task to change scientific research into open scientific research and commit to Open Science principles.
We study whether women and men cope with job loss differently, focusing on the importance of workers' job flexibility and household setting. Our empirical analysis is based on Dutch administrative monthly micro data over the period 2006-2017 using a quasi-experimental design involving job loss following firm bankruptcy. We find for displaced women, but not for displaced men, a persistence in job flexibilities involving limited working hours and short commutes. Importantly, job loss results in a smaller loss in hourly wages and longer unemployment for women, narrowing the gender wage gap but widening the gender employment gap. Also, we show that female workers who are pregnant when job loss occurs experience large losses in employment and conditional on re-employment take up a flexible job. Policy advice is to put a safety net in place to protect pregnant women against the long-term consequences of job loss.
This study examines whether the COVID-19 crisis affects women and men differently in terms of employment, working hours and hourly wages outcomes, and whether the effects are demand or supply driven. As women and men are likely to be employed in different sectors of the economy, facing different labour demand shocks, and are likely to face different childcare responsibilities, it is important to ask whether (and how) women and men were affected differently by the COVID-19 crisis. COVID-19 impacts are studied using administrative data on all Dutch employees up to 30 June 2020, focussing on the national lockdown and emergency childcare for essential workers in the Netherlands. A key policy response from the Dutch government was to classify economic sectors as essential or non-essential as part of an emergency childcare policy that only allowed essential workers to send their children to childcare or school during the lockdown from mid-March to the end of May 2020. We find that the negative impact of COVID-19 is much larger for non-essential workers than for essential workers, suggesting an impact through reduced labour demand. In contrast, we show that both female and male essential workers experienced similar small effects of COVID-19 in employment and working hours. The COVID-19 shock did not seem to result in a widening of the gender gap in employment during the first six months of 2020. Although, on average, women and men were equally affected, female non-essential workers were more affected than male non-essential workers. In addition, we show that partnered men and women with young children were equally affected by the crisis as others, while single-parent essential workers experienced relatively large negative labour supply effects. Specifically, single mothers of preschool children in essential jobs, relative to other female essential workers, experienced a 0.5 percentage point larger loss in employment and a 2 to 3 percentage point larger loss in working hours. Taken together, the evidence suggests there are labour market institutions in place in the Netherlands, such as the short-time work scheme and the generous provision of paid leave, that equally support female and male workers to remain employed while taking care of the family. In times of a strict but relatively short lockdown the measures in place appear sufficient to prevent a widening of gender gaps in labour market outcomes due to the COVID-19 shock. However, evidence of the larger impact for single parents suggests that the Dutch emergency childcare policy was not sufficient for single parents to balance family and paid work during the societal lockdown.
In this article, we introduce the Stata implementation of a flow-based cluster algorithm, flowbca, written in Mata. The main purpose of flowbca is to identify clusters based on relational data of flows. We illustrate the command by providing multiple examples of applications from the research fields of economic geography, industrial input-output analysis, and social network analysis.
We explore how much wage growth varies among Australian employees and how it has changed over the 2001–2018 period. The results show that, after increasing between 2002 and 2007, wage growth significantly slowed post 2008, and particularly from 2013 onwards, returning to early 2000s levels. Employee age, education, employment contract, occupation and industry explain a large share of differences in wage growth between individuals. Employee occupation is more important post‐2008 than pre‐2008, whereas education is more important pre‐2008. Finally, casual employees receive a wage growth premium during periods of economic upturn and a penalty during downturn.
We explore the impact of COVID-19 hotspots and regional lockdowns on the Dutch labour market. Using weekly administrative panel microdata for 50 per cent of Dutch employees until the end of March 2020, we study whether individual labour market outcomes, as measured by employment, working hours and hourly wages, were more strongly affected in provinces where COVID-19 confirmed cases, hospitalizations and mortality were relatively high. We do not observe a region-specific impact of COVID-19 on labour market outcomes. The results suggest individual characteristics are more important, including the employee's age, type of contract and type of job. The evidence suggests that the decline of the labour market was all due to the impacts from the government-enforced lockdown and higher virus case numbers did not reinforce this decline. This suggests that preventive health measures should be at the regional level, isolating hotspots from lowrisk areas.
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